About Department

 

History and Evolution of the Department

 

 

 

  1. Name of the department : Botany

 

  1. Year of Establishment : 1963

 

  1. Names of Programmes / Courses offered :  B.Sc (CBZ) &

B.Sc CBMb) at UG level

M.Sc. (Botany) at PG level

 

 

  1. Names of Interdisciplinary courses and : Chemistry, Zoology and

the departments/units involved                                           Microbiology

 

 

  1. Annual/ semester/choice based credit system : Semester (CBCS) system for

(Programme wise)                                                                I Year & II year, Annual system                                                                                                        for  III Year

 

  1. Participation of the department in the courses : 02

offered by other departments

 

  1. Courses in collaboration with other universities, : 03

foreign Institutions, industries, etc.

 

  1. Details of courses/programmes discontinued : Nil

(if any) with reasons

 

  1. Number of Teaching posts:

                                         

Post Sanctioned Filled
Professors
Associate Professors 01 01
Assistant Professors 03 03

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Faculty profile with name, qualification, designation, specialization, (D.Sc./D.Litt. / Ph.D. / M. Phil. etc.,)

 

Name Qualification Designa tion Specialization No. of Years of Experience No of ph.D students guided for the last 4 years
Dr. N.S.N. Swamy                        (In-charge of the Department) M. Sc, M.Ed, M.Phil, Ph.D., Lecturer Botany  

23 years

 

Nil

Sri P.Rama Rao MSc,APSET Lecturer Botany  

15 Years

 

Nil

Smt V.Padmaja MSc,APSET Lecturer Botany 15 Years Nil
Sri G. Rama Krishna Rao M.Sc.,B.Ed., M.Phil., Lecturer Botany 16 Years Nil

 

  1. List of senior visiting faculty : 1.Dr. K. Srinivasa Rao                                                                                                                                    Principal ( Rtd.)

2.Dr. BVA Rama Rao Naidu

Lecturer in Botany (Rtd.)

Vission

The vision of the Department is to inculcate inner abilities of Biology students and promote all round development in order to reach their goals such as research and employability.

 

Mission

The Department has the possible mechanism that committed, experienced and student friendly faculty, endowed with innovative knowledge in order to promote the better future of the students


Objectives of Department:

  • To introduce advanced and interdisciplinary science courses in UG level
  • To teach advanced biology courses that facilitates better understanding of the classical sciences for translational research
  • To understand the classical sciences importance for the life sciences advancement
  • To motivate more number of students towards higher education and research
  • To develop entrepreneur and employability skills among the UG students
  • To promote collaborations and MOUs with industries and Academies

 

Succession List Of Heads of Department

Sno Name Qualification
01 Sri.G.S.RamaRao BS.c(Hons)
02 Sri. N .GopalaRao MS.c
03 Sri.K. PandurangaRao MS.c
04

 

Sri.S.BhaskaraRao MS.c

 

05 Dr. K.Srinivasa Rao MS.c, PhD.
06 Sri B .Pandu RangaRao. MS.c
07 Sri. K. Sankara Rao. MS.c
08 Dr.B.V.A.RamaRaoNaidu. MS.c, PhD.
09 Sri.B.jagannadha Rao. MS.c,Mphil.
10 Sri. K .Lakshmana Murthy. MS.c,Bed.
11 Sri.S.Visweswara Rao. MS.c , Bed.
12 Dr.N.S.N.Swamy. MS.c,M.ed,MPhil,PhD.
13 Sri.B.Chandramouli. MSc,B.ed,(PhD)
14 Dr.N.S.N. Swamy. MS.c,M.ed,PhD.

 

 

UG Courses Offered:

     Conventional Courses: BS.c (cbz).

Restructured Courses: CBMB.

 

PG Courses Offered:

 

 

Students Strength(Last 3 Years)

2018- 2019

S.No Subject BOYS + GIRLS TOTAL
1 Ist Botany 45+36 81
2 2nd Botany 47+42 89
3 3rd Botany 48+30 78
Total Strength 248

 

 

2017- 2018

S.No CLASS BOYS + GIRLS TOTAL
1 1st Botany 63+34 97
2 2nd Botany 70+31 101
3 3rd Botany 85+28 113
Total Strength 1185

 

 

2016- 2017

S.No CLASS BOYS + GIRLS TOTAL
1 1st Botany 90+36 126
2 2nd Botany 85+28 113
3 3rd Botany 95+30 125
Total Strength 364

 

 

List of Enrollments Category wise in  first year

Year SC ST BC Others Total
2012-13 19 9 113 9 150
2013-14 16 15 85 6 122
2014-15 17 20 89 5 131
2015-16 17 8 86 6 117
2016-17 28 5 80 4 117

 

 

Facilities available in the department

Books in the Departmental Library

  • Books for P.G.students                                              : 31,
  • Data Analytics Books                                                 : 25
  • Complementary copies and personal books                : 100

Computers  in the labs

  • 6 x 5 n-computing systems are in Statistics lab
  • 5 x 2 n-computing systems and 10 systems  in Data Analytics lab.
  • Lap Tops :02
  • Printer                       :01
  • LCD Projectors       : 02

 

Major Equipments

DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY

MAJOR EQUIPMENT AND THEIR USE

 

S.NO. NAME OF THE ARTICLE USAGE
01 AUTO CLAVE It is used for sterilization of nutrient medium
02 HOT AIR OVEN Sterilization of glass ware
03 MICROTOME To make thin, fine section cuttings of plant material
04 DIGITAL ELECTONIC BALANCE To weigh weights up to 0.01mg of required chemicals and other substances
05 COLORIMETER To measure the rate of absorbance of light
06 CENTRIFUGE (5000rpm) To separate different cell organelle
07 BINOCULAR MICROSCOPE To study various micro organisms
08 COMPOUND MICROSCOPE To study various tissues and cells
09 REFRIGIRATOR To store the chemicals and enzymes etc
10 MICROPIPETTIS To measure the solution in small amount
11 BIOVISUAL CHARTS Used as mono dimensional teaching aid
12 PERMANENT SLIDES To observe various organs of the plant body
13 HELIOTROPHIC CHAMBER For proving phototropism
14 CHROMATOGRAPHY CHAMBER To separate different chemicals, amino acids and etc from crude sample
15 ARC AUXONOMETER To measure the rate of growth in plants
16 ANEMOMETER To Know the velocity of wind
17 ALTIMETER To know the altitude of the place
18 WET AND DRY BULB THERMOMETER To know the temperatures in both the wet and dry conditions
19 HYGRO METER To know the humidity
20 HORTICULTURAL INSTRUMENTS For the purpose of Horticultural practices
 

21

 

STUDENT DEMONISTRATION EYE PIECE

 

To demonstrate simultaneously to student and teacher in the microscope

22 CAMERA LUCIDA To draw digrams while observing through the microscope

 

 

 

 

S.NO. NAME OF THE ARTICLE USAGE
01 LAMINOR AIR FLOW CHAMBER For inoculation of Ex plant and Bacteria
02 AUTO CLAVE It is used for sterilization of nutrient medium and cotton
03 HOT AIR OVEN Sterilization of glass ware and inusrtuments
04 BACTERIAL INCUBATOR Inoculation of Bacteria and Fungi
05 COLORIMETER To mesure the rate of absorbance of light by bio molecules
06 CENTRIFUGE To separate different cell organelle, bio molecules and RNA
07 UV-Vis Spectoscopy Estimation of absorbance spectrum of Bio Molecules and Nucleic Acid
08 SHKER WITH INCUBATOR Dissagregation of plant tissue and isolation of cells
09 ELCTROPHOROSIS To separate Bio molecules
10 AGAROSE GEL ELCTROPHOROSIS To separate N1ucleic Acids
11 TISSUE CULTURE RACK For the development of plant lets
12 CHROMATOGRAPHY CHAMER To separate Pigments

To separate Nucleic Acid

13 T L C To separate Bio molecules
14 IMMUNO ELCTROPHOROSIS To separate Ag& Abs
15 VORTEX MIXTURE To mix the the solution
16 SEROLOGICAL WATER BATH For heat the solution
17 HOT PLATES For heat the solution
18 HEAT MANTILE For heat the solution
 

19

 

MAGNETIC STERAR

 

To mix the the compounds

20 DISTELE WATER PURIFIER  To prepare distele water
21 Ph METER To check the Ph of sample
22 DIGITAL BALANCE(0.1mg) To weigh weights upto 0.01mg of required chemicals and other substences
23 ANAEROBIC BACTERIA CULTURE JAR To culture the Anaerobic Bacteria
24 BINOCULAR MICROSCOPE To study various micro organisms
25 COMPOUND MICROSCOPE To study various tissues and cells
26 OHP PROJECTOR For display of slieds in seminors
27 REFRIGIRATOR To store the chemicals and engymes etc
28 MICROPIPETTIS To mesure the solution in small amount

 

Sno Photo Name Qualification Designation Email-id Profile
1 Dr.N.S.N.SWAMY. M.Sc,M.Ed,M.Phil,Ph.D, LECTURER INCHARGE. Dr.nsnswamy@gmail.com [embeddoc url=”http://gcmsklm.in/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Cir.Vitea-20.9.18.doc” viewer=”google”]
2 P.RAMA RAO. M.Sc,B.Ed,APSET,(Ph.D), LECTURER. Paidiramarao27@gmail.com. [embeddoc url=”http://gcmsklm.in/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Curriculam-vitae.PRR_.docx” viewer=”google”]
3 V.PADMAJA. M.Sc,B.Ed,APSET,(Ph.D), LECTURER. vasapadmaja@gmail.com [embeddoc url=”http://gcmsklm.in/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/VITAE-PADMAJA.doc” viewer=”google”]
4 G.RAMA KRISHNA. M.Sc,M.Phil,B.Ed, LECTURER. ramakrishnarao.gunapu@gmail.com [embeddoc url=”http://gcmsklm.in/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/ramki-cv-1.doc” viewer=”google”]

 Faculty Details LECTURER.

       

 

B.Sc., BOTANY SEMESTER-WISE SYLLABUS

THEORY, PRACTICALS AND MODEL QUESTION PAPERS

(AS PER CBCS AND SEMESTER SYSTEM)

 

I, II & III YEARS

 

w.e.f. 2015-16

(REVISED IN APRIL, 2016)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AP STATE COUNCIL OF HIGHER EDUCATION

CBCS – PATTERN FOR BOTANY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andhra Pradesh State Council of Higher Education

Structure of B.Sc Botany under CBCS

w.e.f. 2015-16 (Revised in April, 2016)

Year Semester Paper Title Hours Marks Credits
I I I Microbial Diversity , Algae and Fungi 4 100 03
Practical –I 2 50 02
II II Diversity Of Archaegoniates & Anatomy 4 100 03
Practical –II 2 50 02
II III III Plant taxonomy &Embryology 4 100 03
Practical –III 2 50 02
IV IV Plant physiology & Metabolism 4 100 03
Practical –IV 2 50 02
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

III

V V Cell Biology, Genetics &Plant breeding 3 100 03
Practical –V 2 50 02
VI Plant Ecology & Phytogeography 3 100 03
Practical –VI 2 50 02
 

*Any one paper from (A), (B) and (C) can be selected

 

VI

 

**Any one cluster (Set of Three Papers) from VIII-A or VIII-B can be selected

VII (A)* Elective 3 100 03
Lab 2 50 02
VII (B)* Elective      
Lab      
VII (C)* Elective      
Lab      
**

VIII-A

Cluster Elective-A

VIII-A-1

VIII-A-2

VIII-A-3

 

Or

3

3

3

2

2

2

100

100

100

50

50

50

03

03

03

02

02

02

**

VIII-B

Cluster Elective-B

VIII-B-1

VIII-B-2

VIII-B-3

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andhra Pradesh State Council of Higher Education

I B.Sc – SEMESTER- I: BOTANY SYLLABUS

w.e.f. 2015-16 (Revised in April, 2016)

Paper- I : Microbial Diversity, Algae and Fungi

Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 4 hrs per week

 

UNIT- I: MICROBIAL WORLD (Origin and Evolution of Life, Microbial diversity              (12hrs)

  1. Discovery of microorganisms, origin of life, spontaneous, biogenesis, Pasteur

experiments, germ theory of disease.

  1. Classification of microorganisms – H. Whittaker’s five kingdom concept, Carl

Woese’s-   Domain system.

  1. Brief account of special groups of bacteria- Archaebacteria, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia,

Actinomycetes, Rickettsias and Cyanobacteria.

 

UNIT- II: VIRUSES                                                                                                             (12hrs)

  1. 1. Viruses- Discovery, general account, structure& replication of –T4 Phage

(Lytic, Lysogenic) and TMV, Viroids, Prions.                  

  1. Plant diseasescaused by viruses– Symptoms, transmission and control measures

(Brief account only).

  1. Study of Tobacco Mosaic, Bhendi Vein clearing and Papaya leaf curl diseases.

 

UNIT III: BACTERIA                                                                                                        (12hrs)

  1. Bacteria: Discovery, General characteristics, cell structure andnutrition.
  2. Reproduction- Asexual and bacterial recombination (Conjugation, Transformation,                                     Transduction).
  3. Economic importance of Bacteria.

 

UNIT –IV Algae                                                                                                                    (12hrs)

  1. General account – thallus organization and reproduction in Algae.
  2. Fritsch classification of Algae (up to classes only) and economic importance.
  3. Structure, reproduction and life history of Oedogonium, Ectocarpus and

Polysiphonia.

 

UNIT V: FUNGI                                                                                                                  (12hrs)

  1. General characteristics and outline classification (Ainsworth).
  2. Structure, reproduction and life history of Rhizopus (Zygomycota),Penicillium

(Ascomycota), and Puccinia (Basidiomycota).

  1. Lichens-Structure and reproduction; ecological and economic importance.

 

Suggested activity: Seminar, Quiz, debate, collection of diseased plant parts –studying                                        symptoms and identification of pathogen, collection and study of

                                   fresh and marine Algae available in local area.

 

 

 

Books for Reference:

 

1.      Oladele Ogunseitan (2008) Microbial Diversity: Form and Function in Prokaryotes

     Wiley-  Blackwell.

  1. Pelczar, M.J. (2001) Microbiology, 5th edition, Tata Mc Graw-Hill Co, New Delhi.
  2. Presscott, L. Harley, J. and Klein, D. (2005) Microbiology, 6th edition, Tata Mc

Graw- Hill Co.   New Delhi.

  1. Fritsch F.E. (1935 The Structure & Reproduction of Algae 1945): Cambridge

University Press  Cambridge, U.K.  Vol. I,  Vol. II.

  1. Smith, G.M (1955) :Cryptogamic Botany(Vol. I Algae, Fungi, & Lichens)

McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York .

  1. Ian Morris (1967): An Introduction to the Algae, Hutchinson, London.
  2.    Alexopoulos,C.J.., Mims, C.W. & Blackwell, M. (1996):  Introductory  Mycology

John Wiley& Sons., Inc., N.Y., Chicester, Berisbane, Toronto, Singapore.

  1. Webster, J (1999) : Introduction  to Fungi(2nd   edition) Cambridge University Press.

 

 

 

**Student Activities like Seminars, Assignments, Fieldwork, Study Projects, Models etc. are Part of Curriculum for all units in all papers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I B.Sc – SEMESTER –I: BOTANY PRACTICAL SYLLABUS

Paper-I: Microbial Diversity, Algae and Fungi

Total hours of laboratory Exercises 30 hrs @ 2 per week

 

 

  1. Knowledge of Equipment used in Microbiology: Spirit lamp, Inoculation loop, Hot-air oven, Autoclave/Pressure cooker, laminar air flow chamber and Incubator.
  2. Preparation of liquid and solid media for culturing of microbes (Demonstration).
  3. Study of viruses and bacteria using electron photo micrographs (TMV, Bacteriophage, HIV, Cocci, Bacillus, Spirillum bacteria).
  4. Gram staining technique.
  5. Study of Plant disease symptoms caused by Bacteria (Citrus canker,  leaf blight of rice, Angular leaf spot of Cotton) and viruses (TMV,  Bhendi vein clearing and Leaf curl of Papaya),Fungi (Late blight of potato, Red rot of Sugarcane and Paddy blast).
  6. Study of vegetative and reproductive structures of the following :
  1. Cyanobacteria: Nostoc and Scytonema.
  2. Algae: Oedogonium, Ectocarpus, Polysiphonia,
  3. Fungi: Rhizopus, Penicillium and Puccinia .
  1. Study of plant materialinfected by Fungi (Rot of tomatoes,blue and greenmoulds of Ciitrus fruits and wheat rust(Section cutting of diseased parts of Wheat and Barberry -identification of different spores).
  2. Lichens: Morphology and of anatomy of different thalli.
  3. Field Visit.

      ——————————————————————————————————-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.Sc – SEMESTER –I

 BOTANY PRACTICAL PAPER –I

Paper-1 P: Microbial Diversity, Algae and Fungi

 

Time: 3hrs.                                                                                                         Max. Marks: 50

 

  1. Identify giving reasons two of the given Algal mixture” A“. Leave your preparation for evaluation. Draw labeled diagrams. (Slide–1mark, Diagrams–1mark, Identification–1mark)

3x 2 = 6 Marks

 

  1. Make suitable stained preparation of the material “B” to bring out the details of internal structure–identify giving reasons. Draw labeled diagrams and leave your preparations for evaluation.

(Slide-4 marks, diagrams-3 marks, Identification-3marks)

10 Marks

 

  1. Perform Gram staining of the given Bacterial culture                                          9 Marks

 

  1. Write critical notes and Identify D, E, F, G and H                       (5X3)=          15 Marks

 

  1. Record(submission is compulsory)            10 Marks

————————

Total:                          50 Marks

————————

Key:
A. Algal material
B. Fungi material
C. Bacterial culture

  1. One of the instruments of Micro biology laboratory.
  2. Whole specimen or a permanent slide of Algae.
  3. Whole specimen or a permanent slide of Fungi.
    G. Whole specimen or a permanent slide of Plant disease studied.
    H. Whole specimen or a permanent slide of Lichens.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I B. Sc – SEMESTER- II: BOTANY THEORY SYLLABUS

Paper –II : Diversity of Archaegoniates &Plant Anatomy

Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 4 hrs per week

 

UNIT – I: BRYOPHYTES                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                        (12hrs)

  1. Bryophytes: General characters, Classification (up to classes)
  2. Structure, reproduction and Life history of Marchantia, and Funaria.
  3. Evolution of Sporophyte in Bryophytes.

 

UNIT – II: PTERIDOPHYTES                                                                                          

                                                                                                                                        (12hrs)

  1. 1. Pteridophytes: General characters, classification (up to Classes)
  2. Structure, reproduction and life history of Lycopodium, and Marsilea.
  3. Heterospory and seed habit.
  4. Evolution of stele in Pteridophytes.

 

UNIT – III: GYMNOSPERMS                                                                                            

                                                                                                                                         (12hrs)

  1. Gymnosperms: General characters, classification ( up to classes)
  2. Morphology, anatomy, reproduction and life history of Pinus and Gnetum
  3. Economic importance with reference to wood, essential oils and drugs

 

UNIT –I V:  Tissues and Tissue systems                                                                                            

                                                                                                                                        (12hrs)

  1. Meristems – Root and Shoot apical meristems and their histological organization.
  2. Tissues – Meristematic and permanent tissues (simple, complex, secretory)
  3. Tissue systemsEpidermal, ground and vascular.

 

UNIT – V. Secondary growth                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                         (12hrs)

  1. Anomalous secondary growth in Achyranthes, Boerhaavia and Dracaena.
  2. Study of local timbers of economic importance-Teak, Rosewood, Red sanders and

Arjun (Tella maddi).

 

 

Suggested activity: Collection of Marsilea sporocarp, Pinus needles, male and female cones,

study of Pinus pollen grains, collection of locally available economically useful timbers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Books for Reference:

 

 

  1. Cavers, Frank ( ):   The inter-relationships of the Bryophytes

New Phytologist, Indian Reprint.

  1. Smith, G.M. (1955): Cryptogamic Botany Vol. II. (2nd Edition)

(Bryophytes & Pteridophytes)  Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co., New Delhi.

  1. Parihar, N.S. ( ):  An Introduction to embryophyta – Vol.II. Bryophyta

Central Book Depot, Allahabad.

  1. Watson, E.V. (1968): British Mosses & Liverworts Cambridge University Press,  U.K
  2. Eames, A.J. (1936) : Morphology of Vascular Plants (Lower Groups)

McGraw Hill, N.Y.

  1. Parihar, N.S. (19    )    :  An Introduction to Embryophyta Vol.II Pteridophyta

Central  Book Depot., Allahabad.

  1. Smith, G.M. (1955) : Cryptogamic  Botany Vol.II  (2nd Edn.,)  (Bryophytes &

Pteridophytes)  Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co.,  New Delhi.

  1. Sporne, K.R. (1970) :   The  Morphology  of  Pteridophytes (The  Structure of

Ferns and Allied Plants)  Hutchinson University Library, London

  1. Bierhorst, D.W. (1971) :   Morphology of Vascular  Plants,  The MacMillan  Co.,

N.Y.  & Collier-    MacMillan Ltd.,  London.

  1. Coulter, J.M.& C.J. Chamberlain (1964) :  Morphology of  Gymnosperms

Central Book Depot, Allahabad.

  1. Sporne, K.R. (1971): The Morphology of Gymnosperms (The Structure and

Evolution of Primitive seed Plants) Hutchinson University Library, London.

  1. Esau, K. (1965) : Vascular Differentiation in Plants. Holt, Rinehart & Winston,

N.Y., Chicago, San Fransisco, Toronto, London.

  1. Eames, A.J., & Mc Daniels, L.H.(1979) : An Introduction  to  Plant anatomy

Tata-McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., (P) Ltd. Bombay, New Delhi.

  1. Esau. K.(1980) : Plant Anatomy, (2nd Edition)   Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I B.Sc SEMESTER -II

BOTANY  PRACTICAL SYLLABUS

Paper-II: Diversity of Archaegoniates & Plant Anatomy

Total hours of laboratory Exercises 30 hrs @ 2 per week

 

  1. Morphology (vegetative and reproductive structures) , anatomy of the following :

 Marchantia, Funaria, Lycopodium and   Pinus.

  1. Anatomy:
  2. a) Demonstration of double staining technique.
  3. b) Tissue organization in root and shoot apices using permanent slides
  4. c) Preparation of double staining slides
  5. d) Anomalous secondary structure of Achyranthes, Boerhavia and
  6. e) Anatomical study of wood in T.S., T.L.S. and R.L.S.
  7. Field visits to local timber depots.

 

I B.Sc., SEMESTER –II:  BOTANY PRACTICAL MODEL PAPER II

II P: Diversity of Archaegoniates & plant Anatomy

 

  1. Section cutting of material           –A                                           9 Marks

(Slide 3 marks, diagrams-3 marks, Identification-3 marks)

 

  1. Section cutting of material           –B                                            9 Marks

(Slide 3 marks, diagrams-3 marks, Identification-3 marks)

 

  1. Section cutting of material           –C                                           10 Marks

(Slide 4 marks, diagrams-3 marks, Identification-3 marks)

 

  1. Identification of spotters – D, E, and F                                          3×4   =12 marks

 

  1. Record (submission compulsory)                                     10 marks

 

———————-

Total   :   50 Marks

———————–

 

Key:
A.  Bryophyta/ Pteridophyta material
B.  Gymnosperm material.

  1. Anatomy material.
  2. Whole specimen or permanent slide of Bryophyta/ Pteridophyta
  3. Whole specimen or permanent slide of Gymnosperm.
  4. Whole specimen or permanent slide of wood.

 

II B. Sc – SEMESTER –III: BOTANY THEORY PAPER –III

Paper-III : Plant Taxonomy and Embryology)

Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 4 hrs per week

 

UNIT – I: INTRODUCTION TO PLANT TAXONOMY                                                                                                                                                                                        

 

                                                                                                                                  (12hrs)

1.Fundamental components of taxonomy (identification, nomenclature, classification)

  1. Taxonomic resources: Herbarium- functions& important herbaria, Botanical

gardens, Flora, Keys- single access and multi-access.

  1. Botanical Nomenclature- Principles and rules of ICBN (ranks and names; principle

of priority, binomial system; type method, author citation, valid-publication).

 

UNIT – II: CLASSIFICATION                                                                                 (12 hrs)

  1. Types of classification- Artificial, Natural and Phylogenetic.
  2. Bentham & Hooker’s system of classification- merits and demerits.
  3. Engler & Prantle’s system of classification- merits and demerits
  4. Phylogeny – origin and evolution of Angiosperms

 

UNIT –III: SYSTEMATIC TAXONOMY-I                                                                                                                                                                                                          

                                                                                                                                                (12hrs)

  1. Systematic study and economic importance of the following families:

Annonaceae, Brassicaceae, Rutaceae, Curcurbitaceae, and Apiaceae.

 

UNIT –IV:  SYSTEMATIC TAXONOMY-II                                                                  (12hrs)

  1. Systematic study and economic importance of plants belonging to the following

families: Asteraceae, Asclepiadaceae, Lamiaceae, Ephorbiaceae,Arecaceae,and Poaceae.

 

UNIT – V: EMBRYOLOGY                                                                                              (12hrs)

     

  1. Anther structure, microsporogenesis and development of male gametophyte.
  2. Ovule structure and types; Megasporogenesis, development of Monosporic, Bisporic and Tetrasporic types (Peperomia ,Drusa, Adoxa) of embryo sacs.
  3. Pollination and Fertilization (out lines) Endosperm development and types.
  4. Development of Dicot and Monocot embryos, Polyembryony.

 

 

 

Suggested activity: Collection of locally available plants of medicinal importance, observing pollen grains in honey, Aero palynology-collection of pollen from air using glycerin strips in different seasons.

 

 

 

 

Books for Reference:

 

  1. Porter, C.L. ( ):  Taxonomy of flowering Plants, Eurasia Publishing  House,

New Delhi.

  1. Lawrence, G.H.M. (1953):  Taxonomy of Vascular Plants, Oxford  & IBH

Publishers, New  Delhi, Calcutta.

  1. Jefferey, C.(1968) : An Introduction to Plant Taxonomy J.A. Churchill, London.
  2. Mathur, R.C.(1970) : Systematic Botany (Angiosperms)  Agra Book Stores-

Lucknow, Ajmer,    Allahabad, Delhi.

  1. Maheswari,P(1963) :Recent Advances in the Embryology of Angiosperms(Ed., )

International Society  of Plant Morphologists- University of Delhi.

  1. Swamy. B.G.L. & Krishnamoorthy. K.V.(1980):From flower to fruit

Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co., Ltd., New Delhi.

  1. Maheswari, P.(1985):An Introduction to the Embryology of Angiosperms

Tata McGraw Hill Publishing  Co.,Ltd., New Delhi.

  1. Bhojwani, S.S. & Bhatnagar, S.P. (2000) :   The Embryology of Angiosperms (4th

Edition)  Vikas  Publishing  House(P)Ltd.,  UBS Publisher’s Distributors, New

Delhi.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

II B.Sc BOTANY – SEMESTER-III

Paper-III: PRACTICAL

Plant Taxonomy and Embryology

Total hours of laboratory Exercises 30hrs @ 2 per week

 

Suggested Laboratory Exercises:

 

  1. Systematic study of locally available plants belonging to the families prescribed in theory

syllabus.

  1. Demonstration of herbarium techniques.
  2. Structure of pollen grains using whole mounts (Catharanthus, Hibiscus, Acacia, Grass).
  3. Demonstration of Pollen viability test using in- vitro germination (Catharanthus).
  4. Study of ovule types and developmental stages of embryo sac using permanent slides /Photographs.
  5. Structure of endosperm (nuclear and cellular); Developmental stages of dicot and monocot

Embryos using permanent slides /   Photographs

  1. Isolation and mounting of embryo (using Symopsis / Senna / Crotalaria)
  2. Field visits .
  3. Study of local flora and submission of Field Note Book.

 

 

II B.Sc., BOTANY- SEMESTER -III

PRACTICAL MODEL PAPER III    Plant Taxonomy and Embryology

 

  1. Describe the given Plant specimens (A & B) in technical terms. Draw neat labeled diagrams of twig with inflorescence, L.S. of Flower, T.s. of Ovary and floral Diagram. Give floral formula. Identify the family.

2x 10 = 20 Marks

(Description- vegetative – 2 marks, floral – 4 marks; diagrams-3 marks, Identification-1 marks)

 

  1. Derive the plant specimens C & D to their respective families-      2×4 = 08 marks
  2. Identification of spotters – D, E ,and F    (Embryology )                  3×4   =12 marks

 

  1. Record & Herbarium (submission compulsory)                                          10 marks

 

———————-

Total   :   50 Marks

———————–

 

 

 

II B.Sc. BOTANY, SEMESTER- IV, Paper-IV: THEORY SYLLABUS

PAPER –IV: Plant Physiology and Metabolism

Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 4 hrs per week

 

UNIT – I: Plant – Water relations                                                                              (12 hrs)

 

  1. Physical properties of water, Importance of water to plant life.
  2. Diffusion, imbibition and osmosis; concept & components of Water potential.
  3. Absorption and transport of water and ascent of sap.
  4. Transpiration –Definition, types of transpiration, structure and opening and closing

mechanism of stomata.

 

UNIT –II: Mineral nutrition & Enzymes                                                                  (12hrs)

 

  1. Mineral Nutrition: Essential elements (macro and micronutrients) and their role in

plant metabolism, deficiency symptoms.

  1. Mineral ion uptake (active and passive transport).
  2. Nitrogen metabolism- biological nitrogen fixation in Rhizobium, outlines of protein

synthesis (transcription and translation).

  1. Enzymes: General characteristics, mechanism of enzyme action and factors

regulating   enzyme action.

 

UNIT –III: PHOTOSYNTHESIS                                                                           (12 hrs)

 

  1. Photosynthesis: Photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic light reactions, photo-

phosphorylation, carbon assimilation pathways: C3, C4, and CAM (brief  account)

  1. Photorespiration and its significance.
  2. Translocation of organic solutes: mechanism of phloem transport, source-sink

relationships.

UNIT – IV: PLANT METABOLISM                                                                    (12 hrs)

 

  1. Respiration: Glycolysis, anaerobic respiration, TCA cycle, electron transport system.

Mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation.

  1. Lipid Metabolism: Types of lipids, Beta-oxidation.

 

UNIT –V: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT                                                                       

                                                                                                                                (12hrs)   

  1. Growth and development: definition, phases and kinetics of growth.
  2. Physiological effects of phytohormones – Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins,

ABA, Ethylene and Brassinosteroids.

  1. Physiology of flowering -photoperiodism, role of phytochrome in flowering;

Vernalization.

  1. Physiology of Scenescence and Ageing.

 

Suggested activity: Seminars, Quiz, Debate, Question and Answer sessions, observing animations of protein biosynthesis in you tube.

 

 

 

 

Books for Reference:

 

  1. F.C (1964): Plants at Work (A summary of  Plant Physiology)  Addison-

Wesley Publishing Co., Inc. Reading, Massachusetts, Palo alto, London.

  1. Devlin, R.M. (1969) : Plant Physiology, Holt, Rinehart & Winston & Affiliated

East West Press (P) Ltd., New  Delhi .

  1. Noggle, R.& Fritz (1989):Introductory Plant Physiology Prentice Hall of  India.
  2. Lawlor.D.W. (1989): Photosynthesis, metabolism, Control & Physiology

ELBS/Longmans-London.

  1. Mayer, Anderson & Bonning(1965): Introduction to Plant Physiology

D.Van Nostrand . Publishing Co., N.Y.

  1. Mukherjee, S. A.K. Ghosh(1998) Plant Physiology ,Tata  McGraw  Hill  Publishers(P)

Ltd., New Delhi.

  1. Salisbury, F.B & C.W. Ross (1999): Plant Physiology CBS Publishers and Printers,

New Delhi.

  1. Plummer, D.(1989) Biochemistry–the Chemistry of life ,McGraw Hill Book Co.,

London, N.Y. New Delhi, Paris, Singapore, Tokyo.

  1. Day, P.M.& Harborne, J.B. (Eds.,) (2000): Plant Biochemistry. .

Harcourt Asia (P) Ltd., India & Academic Press, Singapore.

II B. Sc BOTANY SEMESTRE- IV, Paper–IV:  PRACTICAL SYLLABUS

PAPER-IV:  Plant Physiology and Metabolism

Total hours of laboratory Exercises 30 hrs @ 2 per week

 

Suggested Laboratory Exercises:

 

  1. Osmosis – by potato osmoscope experiment
  2. Determination of osmotic potential of plant cell sap by plasmolytic method using

leaves of Rhoeo / Tradescantia.

  1. Structure of stomata (dicot & monocot)
  2. Determination of rate of transpiration using cobalt chloride method.
  3. Demonstration of transpiration by Ganongs’ photometer
  4. Demonstration of ascent of sap/Transpiration pull.
  5. Effect of Temperature on membrane permeability by colorimetric method.
  6. Study of mineral deficiency symptoms using plant material/photographs.
  7. Separation of chloroplast pigments using paper chromatography technique.
  8. Rate of photosynthesis under varying Co2 concentrations.
  9. Effect of light intensity on oxygen evolution in photosynthesis using

Wilmott’ bubbler.

II B. Sc – SEMESTER- IV, BOTANY PRACTICAL MODEL PAPER

PAPER- IV – Plant Physiology and Metabolism

 

 

  1. Perform the Experiments A & B. Give the aim, principle, procedure and observation. Tabulate the results if any. Draw labeled diagram.                                                  2 x 15 = 30 marks

 

  1. Give the protocol of the experiments   C & D                                    2 x 5  -= 10 marks

 

  1. Record & Viva

10 marks

————————

50  marks

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

III B. Sc – SEMESTER- V: BOTANY SYLLABUS

   THEORY PAPER – V

Paper-V: Cell Biology, Genetics and Plant Breeding

Total hours of teaching 60 hrs @ 3 hrs per week

 

UNIT – I Cell Biology:                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                         (12hrs)

  1. Cell, the unit of life- Cell theory, Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Eukaryotic cell

components.

  1. Ultra structure and functions of cell wall and cell membranes.
  2. Chromosomes: morphology, organization of DNA in a chromosome (nucleosome

model), Euchromatin and heterochromatin.

 

UNIT – II   Genetic Material:                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                     (12hrs)          

  1. DNA as the genetic material: Griffith’s and Avery’s transformation experiment,

Hershey – Chase bacteriophage experiment.

  1. DNA structure (Watson & Crick model) and replication of DNA (semi-conservative)
  2. Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA), their structure and function.

 

 UNIT – III Mendelian Inheritance:                                                                        (12 hrs)

  1. Mendel’s laws of Inheritance (Mono- and Di- hybrid crosses); backcross and test

cross.

  1. Chromosome theory of Inheritance.
  2. Linkage: concept, complete and incomplete linkage, coupling and repulsion; linkage maps based

on two and three factor crosses.

  1. Crossing Over: concept & significance.

 

UNIT – IV Plant Breeding:                                                                                      (12 hrs)

  1. Introduction and Objectives of plant breeding.
  2. Methods of crop improvement: Procedure, advantages and limitations of

Introduction, Selection, and Hybridization (outlines only).

           

UNIT – V Breeding, Crop Improvement and Biotechnology:                  (12 hrs)

  1. Role of mutations in crop improvement.
  2. Role of somaclonal variations in crop improvement.
  3. Molecular breeding – use of DNA markers in plant breeding and crop improvement

(RAPD, RFLP).

 

Suggested activity: Seminar, Debate, Quiz, observation of live cells and nucleus in Onion peels, observation of Meiotic nuclei in Maize pollen. Solving Genetics problems.

 

 

 

 

Books for Reference:

 

  1. Old, R.W. and Primrose S.B. 1994, Principles of Gene Manipulation Blackwell Science,

London 2. Grierson, D. and Convey S.N. 1989, Plant Molecular Biology, Blackie Publishers, New York.

  1. Lea, P.J. and Leegood R.C. 1999, Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, John Wiley

and Sons, London.

  1. Power C.B., 1984, Cell Biology, Himalaya Publishing Co. Mumbai
  2. De. Robertis and De Robertis, 1998, Cell and Moleceular Biology, K.M. Verghese and

Company  .

  1. Sinnott, E.W., L.C. Dunn & J. Dobshansky (1958) :   Principles  of Genetics (5th Edition)

McGraw  Hill Publishing Co., N.Y. Toronto,  London.

  1. Winchester, A.M. (1958) : Genetics(3rd Edition)  Oxford  & IBH Publishing  House,

Calcutta, Bombay, New Delhi.

  1. Singleton, R.(1963) :  Elementary Genetics, D. Van  Nostrand Co., Ltd., Inc., N.Y. &

Affiliated East West Press (P) Ltd., New Delhi.

  1. Strickberger, M.W. (1976): Genetics(2nd Edition)  MacMillan  Publishing  Co., Inc.,

N.Y., London

  1. Watson, J.D. (1977): Molecular Biology of the Gene, W.A. Benjamin, Inc., Menlo Park-

California, Reading-Massachusetts, London, Amsterdam, Don Mills, Ontario, Sydney.

  1. Gardner,E.J & Snusted, D.P.(1984): Principles of Genetics (7thedition)

John Wiley & Sons, N.Y. Chichester, Brisbane,    Toronto, Singapore.

  1. Lewin, B. (1985) Genes VII Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta,

Madras, Hydrabad.

  1. Allard R.W(1999): The Principles of Plant Breeding, John & Wiley and Sons.
  2. Poelman J.M: Breeding Field Crops, Springer.
  3. George Acquaah(2012):Principles of Plant Genetics & Breeding: Wiley-Blackwell.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

III B. Sc – BOTANY SYLLABUS   SEMESTER- V

Practical Paper-V: CELL BIOLOGY, GENETICS AND PLANT BREEDING

Total hours of teaching 30hrs @ 2hrs per week

 

Suggested Laboratory Exercises:

 

  1. Study of the structure of cell organelles through photomicrographs.
  2. Study of structure of plant cell through temporary mounts.
  3. Study of various stages of mitosis using cytological preparation of Onion root tips.
  4. Study of DNA packing by micrographs.
  5. Study of effect of temperature & organic solvent on permeability of cell membrane.
  6. Numerical problems solving Mendel’ Laws of inheritance
  7. Chromosome mapping using 3 point test cross data.
  8. Hybridization techniques – emasculation, bagging (for demonstration only).
  9. Field visit to a plant breeding research station.
  10. Calorimetric estimation of DNA by diphenylamine method.

 

.

 

III B. Sc – SEMESTER- V, BOTANY PRACTICAL MODEL PAPER

PAPER-V:  CELL BIOLOGY, GENETICS AND PLANT BREEDING

 

 

 

  1. Perform the Experiment A .Perform squash on onion root tip, prepare the slide, identify at least one division stage. Write the procedure and draw the diagram of reported stage.

1 x 15 = 15marks

 

  1. Give the experimental protocol of the experiments B                           1 x 10 = 10 marks

 

  1. Solving numerical problems on Mendelian in heritance C,D 2x 7 1/2     =15 marks

 

  1. Record & Viva                                                                                                    = 10 marks

————————

50  marks

 

A-Onion root squash technique

B- Estimation of DNA by diphenylamine method

C&D Numerical problems on Mendelian Inheritance.

 

 

 

III B. Sc – SEMESTER- V:  BOTANY THEORY SYLLABUS

PAPER-VI:  PLANT ECOLOGY& PHYTOGEOGRAPHY

Total hours of teaching 60 hrs @ 3 hrs per week

 

UNIT – I. Elements of Ecology                                                                                (12 hrs)

  1. Ecology: definition, branches and significance of ecology.
  2. Climatic Factors: Light, Temperature, precipitation.
  3. Edaphic Factor: Origin, formation, composition and soil profile.
  4. Biotic Factor: Interactions between plants and animals.

 

UNIT– II. Ecosystem Ecology                                                                                  (12 hrs)

  1. Ecosystem: Concept and components, energy flow, Food chain, Food web, Ecological pyramids.
  2. Productivity of ecosystem-Primary, Secondary and Net productivity.
  3. Biogeochemical cycles- Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorous.

 

UNIT – II Population &Community Ecology                                                        (12 hrs)         

  1. Population -definition, characteristics and importance, outlines –ecotypes.
  2. Plant communities- characters of a community, outlines – Frequency, density, cover,

life forms, competition.

  1. Interaction between plants growing in a community.

 

UNIT – IV Phytogeography                                                                                                (12 hrs)

  1. Principles of Phytogeography, Distribution (wides, endemic, discontinuous species)
  2. Phytogeographic regions of India.
  3. Phytogeographic regions of World.
  4. Endemism – types and causes

 

UNIT- V: Plant Biodiversity and its importance                                                    (12 hrs)

  1. Definition, levels of biodiversity-genetic, species and ecosystem.
  2. Biodiversity hotspots- Criteria, Biodiversity hotspots of India.
  3. Loss of biodiversity – causes and conservation (In-situ and ex-situ methods).
  4. Seed banks – conservation of genetic resources and their importance

 

Suggested activity :Collection of different soils, studying their texture, observing polluted water bodies, student study projects, debates on man’s activity on ecosystem and biodiversity conservation methods, visiting a nearest natural vegetation area. Visit to NGO, working in the field of biodiversity and report writing; to study Honey Bees and plants yielding honey.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Books for Reference:

 

  1. Daubenmire, R.F. ( ): Plants & Environment (2nd Edn.,) John Wiley & Sons., New York
  2. Puri, .G.S. (1960): Indian Forest Ecology (Vol.I & II) Oxford Book Co., New Delhi &

Calcutta.

  1. Billings, W.B. (1965): Plants and the Ecosystem Wadsworth Publishing Co., Inc., Belmont.
  2. Misra, R. (1968): The Ecology work Book Oxford & INH Publishing Co., Calcutta
  3. Odum E.P. (1971): Fundamentals of Ecology (2nd Edn.,) Saunders & Co., Philadelphia &

Natraj  Publishers, Dehradun.

  1. Odum E.P. (1975): Ecology By Holt, Rinert & Winston.
  2. Oosting, H.G. (1978): Plants and Ecosystem Wadworth Belmont.
  3. Kochhar, P.L. (1975): Plant Ecology. (9th Edn.,) New Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta-226pp.,
  4. Kumar, H.D. (1992): Modern Concepts of Ecology (7th Edn.,) Vikas Publishing Co., New

Delhi.

  1. Kumar H.D. (2000): Biodiversity & Sustainable Conservation Oxford & IBH Publishing
  1. Co Ltd. New Delhi.
  1. Newman, E.I. (2000): Applied Ecology Blackwell Scientific Publisher, U.K.
  2. Chapman, J.L&M.J. Reiss (1992): ecology (Principles & Applications). Cambridge

University Press, U.K.

  1. Cain, S.A . (1944): Foundations of Plant Geography Harper & Brothers, N.Y.
  2. Mani, M.S (1974): Ecology & Biogeography of India Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Haque
  3. Good, R. (1997): The Geography of flowering Plants (2nd Edn.) Longmans, Green &

Co., Inc., London & Allied Science Publishers, New Delhi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

III B. Sc – SEMESTER- V:  BOTANY PRACTICAL

PRACTICAL PAPER-VI:  PLANT ECOLOGY& PHYTOGEOGRAPHY

Total hours of teaching 30 hrs @ 3 hrs per week

 

  1. Study of instruments used to measure microclimatic variables; soil thermometer, maximum and minimum thermometer, anemometer, psychrometer, rain gauze, and lux meter.
  2. Permeability (percolation; total capacity as well as rate of movement) of different soil samples.
  3. Determination of soil pH
  4. Study of morphological and anatomical adaptations of hydrophytes and xerophytes (4 each)
  5. Determination of minimal quadrat size for the study of herbaceous vegetation in the college campus by species area curve method
  6. Study of Phytoplankton and macrophytes from water bodies.
  7. Study of species diversity index of vegetation.
  8. Estimation of Primary Productivity of an ecosystem
  9. To study field vegetation with respect to stratification, canopy cover and composition.
  10. Study of plants included in agro forestry and social forestry.
  11. To locate the hotspots, phyto geographical regions and distribution of endemic plants

in the map of India.

  1. The following practical should be conducted in the Field/lab with the help of photo-

graphs, herbarium, Floras, Red data book- Study of endangered plants species, critically endangered plants species, vulnerable plant species and  monotypic endemic genera of India.

 

 

 

III B. Sc – SEMESTER- VI:  BOTANY PRACTICAL MODEL PAPER

PAPER–VI:  PLANT ECOLOGY & PHYTOGEOGRAPHY

 

 

  1. 1. Study Project under supervision                      =     15 Marks

 

  1. Record & Viva-Voce    =      10 Marks

 

  1. Experiment A                                                                                   =    10 Marks

 

  1. Anatomical adaptations of B (Section cutting) =     10 Marks

 

  1. Spotters C&D (2×2 1/2) =     5 Marks

———————————

Total =         50 Marks

 

 

 

  1. Study Project of a surrounding Ecosystem (terrestrial or aquatic)(plant diversity, animal diversity, human activity, pollution levels, restoration efforts under supervision.
  2.  Presentation of the project work in Q & A session.
  3. A -determination of soil porosity/PH/percolation/retaining capacity.
  4. B– Xerophyte/Hydrophyte anatomical adaptations.
  5. C & D-anemometer/rain gauze/lux meter.

 

 

SEMESTER-VI: Electives

Andhra Pradesh State Council of Higher Education

w.e.f. 2015-16 (Revised in April 2016)

III B. Sc – BOTANY SYLLABUS   SEMESTER- VI

PAPER – VII – ELECTIVE [(A) or (B) or (C)]

Paper VII-(A): ORGANIC FARMING & SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week

 

 

Unit – I: Concept of organic farming:                                                                              (12hrs)

  1. Introduction: Farming, organic farming, concept and development of organic farming.
  2. Principles of organic farming, types of organic farming, biodynamic farming.
  3. Benefits of organic farming, need for organic farming, conventional farming     v/sorganic farming
  4. Scope of organic farming; Andhra Pradesh, National and International status.
  5. Agencies and institutions related to organic agriculture.
  6. Requirements for organic farming, farm components for an organic farm.

Unit – II: Organic plant nutrient management:                                                   (12hrs)

  1. Organic farming systems, soil tillage, land preparation and mulching.
  2. Choice of varieties.
  3. Propagation-seed, planting materials and seed treatments, water                                                 management
  4. Green manuring, composting- principles, stages, types and factors,                                             composting methods,  Vermi composting
  5. Bulky organic manures, concentrated organic manures, organic preparations,                                 organic amendments and sludges.
  6. Bio-fertilizers- types, methods of application, advantages and disadvantages,    standards for organic inputs- fertilizers

 

 Unit-III: Organic plant protection:                                                                       (12hrs)

  1. Plant protection- cultural, mechanical, botanical pesticides, control agents
  2. Weed management
  3. Standards for organic inputs- plant protection.

 

Unit- IV: Organic crop production practices:                                                       (12hrs)

  1. Organic crop production  methods- rice, coconut.
  2. Organic crop production  methods- vegetables- okra, amaranthus, cucurbits.
  3. Livestock component in organic farming.
  4. Sustainable Agriculture-Apiculture, Mushroom cultivation.

Unit- V: Organic Certification                                                                                (12hrs)

  1. Farm economy: Basic concept of economics- demand &supply, economic                                  viability  of a farm.
  2. Basic production principles, reducing expenses, ways to increase returns, cost                            of production system. Benefit/ cost ratio, marketing, imports and exports.
  3. Policies and incentives of organic production.
  4. Farm inspection and certification.
  5. Terrace farming.

 

Books for Reference:

  1. Palaniappan SP &Anandurai K. 1999. Organic Farming–Theory and Practice. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur
  2. Joshi, M. 2014. New Vistas of Organic Farming 2nd Ed. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur.
  3. Farming system : Theory and Practice – S.A.Solaimalai
  4. Organic Farming: Theory and Practice- S.P.Palaniappan and K.A. Annadurai
  5. A hand book of Organic Farming by A.K.Sharma

 

 

Suggested Activities: Preparation of Vermicompost in small scale, observing sewage sludge disposal mechanisms in urban/semi urban areas, studying the usage, of green manures, neem oil, neem cake, pongamia oil in organic farming, livestock component in various farming methods, visiting an Apiculture center, drawing various terrace farming models

 

 

Paper-VII-A : Practical

            Semester – VI, Paper-VII-A : Organic Farming and Sustainable Agriculture

Total hours of teaching 30 hrs @ 2 hrs per week

 

  1. Study of different bio pesticides, weedicides, inorganic and organic fertilizers
  2. Deficiency symptoms of nutrient deficiency symptoms (photographs)
  3. Soil testing, liming, and fertilizing
  4. Preparation of enriched Farm Yard Manure.
  5. Study of composting methods.
  6. Preparation of vermicompost.
  7. Study of recycling of farm waste.
  8. Study of methods of green manuring.
  9. Study of steps in mushroom cultivation
  10. Visit to urban waste recycling unit.
  11. Study project report under supervision of lecturer – farm manure preparation/vermi-compost// /waste management// green manures/ mushroom cultivation / nutrient requirements of vegetables

Expected domain skills to be achieved: Performing Soil analysis, soil enrichment methods, composting procedure, recycling of wastes, use of waste materials in mushroom cultivation, understanding nutrient requirement of various crops, identifying various methods of keeping soil health

PRACTICAL MODEL PAPER

Paper-VII-(A) : Organic Farming and Sustainable Agriculture

Q1. Project report     (A)                                                                               – 15 marks

            Viva-voce on study project                                                               -05 marks

Q2. Identify and write notes on B, C, D, and E     (4×5)                            -20 marks

            B- inorganic manures/bio-weedicides/bio-pesticides (photograph/ specimen)

            C- Compost preparation method ( photograph/instrument)

            D- Green manure type (plant specimen/photograph)

            E- Waste recycling method (photograph/live specimen/institute/organization)

Q4. Field report                                                                                             – 05 marks

Q5. Record                                                                                                     – 05 marks

                                                                                     TOTAL:                    50 marks

III B. Sc – BOTANY SYLLABUS   SEMESTER- VI

PAPER – VII – ELECTIVE

Paper VII-(B): Nursery, Gardening and Floriculture.

Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week

 

Unit I: Nursery:                                                                                                 (12 hrs.)

  1. Definition, objectives, scope and building up of infrastructure for nursery.
  2.   Planning and seasonal activities – Planting – direct seeding and transplants.
  3. Nursery Management and Routine Garden Operations.

Unit III: Gardening                                                                                                (12 hrs.)

  1. Definition, objectives and scope – different types of gardening.
  2. Landscape and home gardening – parks and its components, plant materials and design .
  3. Computer applications in landscaping.
  4. Gardening operations: soil laying, manuring, watering.
  5. Landscaping Places of Public Importance: Landscaping highways and             Educational Institutions)
  6. Some Famous gardens of India.

 

Unit III: Propagation methods                                                                            (12 hrs.)

1  Sowing/raising of seeds and seedlings, transplanting of seedlings.                                   2.Air-layering, cutting, selection of cutting ,propagule collecting season,                                         treatment of cutting  rooting medium and planting of cuttings – Hardening                        of plants.

  1. Propagation of ornamental plants by rhizomes, corms tubers, bulbs and bulbils.
  2. .Green house – mist chamber, shed root, shade house and glass house for             propagation.

 

Unit IV: Floriculture:                                                                                         ( 12 hrs.)

  1. Ornamental Plants: Flowering annuals; herbaceous, perennials; Divine vines; Shade and ornamental trees.
  2. Ornamental bulbous and foliage plants; Cacti and succulents.
  3. Ornamentals-palms.
  4. Cultivation of plants in pots; Indoor gardening; Bonsai.

 

Unit V: Commercial Floriculture                                                                ( 12 hrs.)

  1. Factors affecting flower production; Production and packaging of cut flowers;                                     Flower   arrangements; Methods to prolong vase life of flowers
  2. Cultivation of Important cut flowers (Carnation, Aster, Dahlia, Gerbera,             Anthuriams, Gladiolous,  Marigold, Rose, Lilium)
  3. Management of pests, diseases and harvesting.
  4. Methods of harvesting.

 

Books for Reference:

  1. Bose T.K. & Mukherjee, D., 1972, Gardening in India, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co.,

New Delhi.

  1. Sandhu, M.K., 1989, Plant Propagation, Wile Eastern Ltd., Bangalore, Madras.
  2. Kumar, N., 1997, Introduction to Horticulture, Rajalakshmi Publications, Nagercoil.

institution)

4.Randhawa, G.S. and Mukhopadhyay, A. 1986. Floriculture in India. Allied Publishers.

 

Suggested Activities: Raising a nursery, managing it, studying and drawing various land scaping designs, practicing layering methods, using shade nets to protect horticultural crops, practicing indoor gardening techniques, visiting florists and recording their methods of prolonging vase life of commercial cut flowers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

III B. Sc – BOTANY SYLLABUS   SEMESTER- VI (Elective)

Practical Syllabus, Paper VII-(B): Nursery, Gardening and Floriculture

Total hours of teaching 30hrs @ 2hrs per week

 

  1. Tools, implements and containers used for propagation and nursery techniques.
  2. Propagation by cutting, layering, budding and grafting
  3. Seed propagation- preparation of portable trays, seed treatments, sowing and seedling production.
  4. Identification and description of annuals, herbaceous perennials, climbers, creepers, foliage and flowering shrubs, trees, palms, ferns, ornamental grasses; cacti and       succulents..
  5. Planning and designing of gardens, functional uses of plants in the landscape
  6. Preparation of land for lawn and planting.
  7. Identification of commercially important flower crops and their varieties.
  8. Propagation practices in flower crops, sowing of seeds and raising of seedlings of annuals.
  9. Use of chemicals and other compounds for prolonging the vase life of cut flowers.
  10. Grading, packing and marketing of cut flowers.
  11. Visit to commercial nurseries and commercial tissue culture laboratory
  12. Study project under supervision of lecturer – nursery/ornamental flowers/ plants/lawn designing/ landscape designing

 

Expected domain skills to be achieved: Ability to use a variety of garden tools and implements, proficiency in layering and grafting techniques (cleft grafting and bud grafting), land scape drawings using computers, raising of healthy nurseries of flowering plants, managing vase life of cut flowers etc.

 

PRACTICAL MODEL PAPER

Paper-VII-(B): Nursery, Gardening and Floriculture

Q1. Project report     (A)                                                                               – 15 marks

            Viva-voce on study project                                                               -05 marks

Q2. Identify and write notes on B, C, D, and E     (4×5)                            -20 marks

            B- Tool/instrument/container used in nursery

            C-Seed propagation technique

            D- Plant used in lawn  (plant specimen/photograph)

            E-ornamental flower (photograph/live specimen)

Q4. Field report                                                                                             – 05 marks

Q5. Record                                                                                                     – 05 marks

                                                                                                                         50 marks

 

III B. Sc – BOTANY SYLLABUS   SEMESTER- VI

PAPER – VII – ELECTIVE

Paper VII-(C): Plant tissue culture and its biotechnological applications

Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week

 

Unit I: PLANT TISSUE CULTURE – 1                                                               (12hrs)

  1. History of plant tissue culture research – basic principles of plant tissue callus culture, meristem culture, organ culture, Totipotency of cells, differentiation and dedifferentiation.
  2. Methodology – sterilization (physical and chemical methods), culture media, Murashige and Skoog’s (MS medium), phytohormones, medium for micro-propagation/clonal propagation of ornamental and horticulturally important plants.
  3. Callus subculture maintenance, growth measurements, morphogenesis in                                callus  culture – organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis.

UNIT-II: Plant Tissue culture -2                                                                             (12hrs)

  1. Endosperm culture – Embryo culture -culture requirements – applications, embryo rescue technique.
  2. Production of secondary metabolites.
  3. Cryopreservation; Germ plasm conservation.

Unit III: Recombinant DNA technology                                                                 (12hrs)

  1. Restriction Endonucleases (history, types I-IV, biological role and application);

concepts of restriction mapping.

  1. Cloning Vectors: Prokaryotic(pUC 18, pBR322,Ti plasmid and Lambda phage, Eukaryotic Vectors (YAC and briefly PAC)
  2. Gene cloning (Bacterial Transformation and selection of recombinant clones, PCR mediated gene cloning)
  3. Construction of genomic and cDNA libraries, screening DNA libraries to obtain gene of interest by complementation technique, colony hybridization.

Unit IV: Methods of gene transfer                                                                          (12hrs)

  1. Methods of gene transfer- Agrobacterium-mediated, direct gene transfer by

Electroporation, Microinjection, Micro projectile bombardment.

  1. Selection of transgenics– selectable marker and reporter genes (Luciferase, GUS, GFP).

Unit V: Applications of Biotechnology                                                             (12 hrs)

  1. Applications of Plant Genetic Engineering – crop improvement, herbicide                                  resistance,    insect resistance, virus resistance.
  2. Genetic modification – transgenic plants for pest resistant (Bt-cotton); herbicide    resistance (Round Up Ready soybean); improved agronomic                                    traits –  flavrSavr tomato, Golden rice); Improved horticultural varieties                                     (Moon             dust carnations)

Books for Reference:

  1. T. and M.V.Subba Rao. 2009. Plant Tissue culture. Scientific Publishers, New Delhi.
  2. Bhojwani, S.S. and Razdan, M.K., (1996). Plant Tissue Culture: Theory and Practice. Elsevier Science Amsterdam. The Netherlands.
  3. Glick, B.R., Pasternak, J.J. (2003). Molecular Biotechnology- Principles and Applications ofrecombinant DNA. ASM Press, Washington.
  4. Bhojwani, S.S. and Bhatnagar, S.P. (2011). The Embryology of Angiosperms. VikasPublicationHouse Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 5th edition.
  5. Snustad, D.P. and Simmons, M.J. (2010). Principles of Genetics. John Wiley and Sons, U.K. 5th edition.
  6. Stewart, C.N. Jr. (2008). Plant Biotechnology & Genetics: Principles, Techniques and   Applications. John Wiley & Sons Inc. U.S.A.

Suggested Activities: In vitro initiation of callus on artificial medium, seminars on utilization of rDNA technology, debates on applications of Biotechnology (whether it is a boon or bane to the society) studying growth patterns, vegetative characteristics of Bt.cotton and identifying the features of its pest resistance

 

III B. Sc – BOTANY SYLLABUS   SEMESTER- VI

PAPER – VII-(C) Elective

Practical Paper VII-(C):  Plant Tissue Culture &Plant Biotechnology

Total hours of teaching 30hrs @ 2hrs per week

 

  1. (a) Preparation of MS medium.

(b) Demonstration of in vitro sterilization methods and inoculation methods using leaf               and nodal explants of Tobacco/ Datura/ Brassica etc.

  1. Study of embryo and culture, micro propagation of Banana, somatic embryogenesis,

artificial seeds through photographs.

  1. Construction of restriction map of circular and linear DNA from the data provided.
  2. Study of methods of gene transfer through photographs: Agrobacterium-mediated, direct gene transfer by electroporation, microinjection, and micro projectile bombardment.
  3. Different steps involved in genetic engineering for production of Bt. cotton, Golden rice, Flavr Savr tomato through photographs.
  4. Isolation of plasmid DNA.
  5. Restriction digestion and gel electrophoresis of plasmid DNA (optional)
  6. Field visit to a lab involved in tissue culture
  7. Study project under supervision of lecturer – tissue culture/ genetic engineering

 

Expected domain skills to be achieved: Ability to prepare artificial nutrient media, preparing independently, applying various sterilization procedures for media, glassware and biological materials, in vitro propagation of Banana callus, morphogenesis–s, clonal propagation methods, isolation of plasmid DNA individually and as a group.

 

PRACTICAL MODEL PAPER

Paper-VII-(C) : Plant Tissue Culture &Plant Biotechnology

Q1. Project  report      (A)                                                                               – 15 marks

Viva-voce  on  study project                                                               -05 marks

Q2. Identify and write notes on B, C and D (3×4)                                          -12 marks

B- Tool/instrument/container used in sterilization

C- Tool/instrument/container used in gene transfer

D- GM crops (Photographs)

Q3. Construct restriction map of circular and/ or linear DNA from the data provided –                                                                                                                                08 marks

Q4. Field report                                                                                              – 05 marks

Q5. Record                                                                                                     – 05 marks

—————————                                                                                                                                      50 marks

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CLUSTER ELECTIVES   (Cluster–A or Cluster-B)

III B.Sc.: BOTANY SYLLABUS   SEMESTER- VI

Paper VIII, CLUSTER ELECTIVE,  Cluster-A,

Paper VIII-A-1 : PLANT DIVERSITY AND HUMAN WELFARE

Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week

____________________________________________________________

Unit- I: Plant diversity and its scope:                            (12hrs)

  1. Genetic diversity, Species diversity, Plant diversity at the ecosystem level, Agro biodiversity and cultivated plant taxa, wild taxa.
  2. Values and uses of biodiversity: Ethical and aesthetic values, iii.      Methodologies for valuation, Uses of plants.

Unit -II: Loss of biodiversity: (12hrs)

  1. Loss of genetic diversity, Loss of species diversity, Loss of ecosystem diversity, Loss of agro biodiversity, projected scenario for                    biodiversity loss
  2. Management of plant biodiversity: Organizations associated with biodiversity management-Methodology for execution-IUCN, UNEP,         UNESCO, WWF, NBPGR; Biodiversity legislation and conservations,          Biodiversity information management and communication.

Unit-III: Contemporary practices in resource management:      (12hrs)

  1. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Geographical Information System GIS, Participatory resource appraisal, Ecological                                      footprint with emphasis on carbon footprint, Resource                                 accounting;
  2. Solid and liquid waste management

Unit -IV: Conservation of biodiversity                                           (12hrs) 

  1. Conservation of genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem           diversity, In situ and ex situ conservation,
  2. Social approaches to conservation, Biodiversity awareness           programmes, Sustainable development.

Unit- V: Role of plants in relation to Human Welfare                 (12hrs)

  1. Importance of forestry, their utilization and commercial aspects-
  2. a) Avenue trees, b) ornamental plants of India. c) Alcoholic                     beverages through ages.
  3. Fruits and nuts: Important fruit crops their commercial importance.           Wood, fiber and their uses.

Suggested Readings:

  1. Krishnamurthy, K.V. (2004). An Advanced Text Book of Biodiversity – Principles and Practices. Oxford and IBH Publications Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
  2. Singh, J. S., Singh, S.P. and Gupta, S. (2006). Ecology, Environment and Resource Conservation. Anamaya Publications, New Delhi.
  3. Rogers, P.P., Jalal, K.F. and Boyd, J.A. (2008). An Introduction to Sustainable Development. Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi.

Suggested activities:      Study of flora and its diversity in the college       campus or local area,enumerating wild and exotic      species(Parthenium,Water hyacinth etc.)

Project work on any one of the International organizations striving for     preservation of biodiversity, study of conservation efforts of local        people, and civic bodies, study of locally available fruits in different seasons, enumerating the avenue plantations and their diversity in your town/city

Paper – VIII-A-1 : Practicals: PLANT DIVERSITY AND HUMAN WELFARE

1) Study of plant diversity (flowering plants).

2) Study of exotic species- Identification and morphological characteristics.

3) Identification of forest trees through bark, wood, flowers, leaves and fruits.

4) Maceration, Study of wood (Tracheary elements, fibres).

5) Methods of preservation and canning of fruits.

6) Visit to the local ecosystem to study the plants.

7) Write up on the conservation efforts of International organizations.

8) Study of Solid and Liquid waste management systems in rural/urban areas.

Domain skills expected to achieve:  Identification of exotic plant species, identification of forest trees based on the characteristics of bark, flowers and fruits, understanding the preservation methods of fresh and dry fruits, understanding the methods of safe disposal of biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes

 

 

SCHEME OF PRACTICAL EXAMINATION

PRACTICAL- VIII-A-1 : Cluster Elective (MODEL QUESTION PAPER)

PLANT DIVERSITY AND HUMAN WELFARE

Time: 3hrs                                                                            Max. Marks: 50

 

  1. Assign the plants A, B and C to their respective families, giving reasons, family name and classification-2 marks, important diagrams- 3 marks.                                                               15 marks

 

  1. Give the protocol of D 10   marks  

 

III.     Comment on specimens E, F and G                               3×3 = 9 marks

 

 

  1. Report on Field visit                                       6 marks

To study sources of firewood (10 plants), timber-yielding trees               (10trees) and  bamboos.

 

  1. Viva-Voce 5 marks

 

  1. Practical Record 5 marks

 

KEY

A-Cultivated Plant

B- Wild Plant

C –Exotic plant

D- Preservation and canning of fruits, solid and liquid waste management         systems in rural/urban areas

  1. Bark/wood/fruit yielding plant
  2. Nuts/ Alcoholic beverage plant
  3. wood /Fibre yielding plant

 

 

 

 

 

 

III B. Sc – BOTANY SYLLABUS

SEMESTER- VIII : CLUSTER ELECTIVE -A

Paper VIII-A-2 : ETHNOBOTANY AND MEDICINAL BOTANY

Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week

 

Unit –I: Ethnobotany                                                                      (12hrs)

  1. Introduction, concept, scope and objectives; Ethnobotany as an

interdisciplinary science. The relevance of ethnobotany in the                             present context

  1. Major and minor ethnic groups or Tribals of India, and their life

styles.

iii. Plants used by the tribal populations: a) Food plants, b) intoxicants

and beverages, c) Resins and oils and miscellaneous uses.

 

Unit -II: Role of ethnobotany in modern Medicine:                      (12hrs)

  1. Role of ethnobotany in modern medicine with special example

                   Rauvolfia sepentina, Trichopus zeylanicus, Artemisia                                  annua, Withania   somnifera.

  1. Medico-ethnobotanical sources in India

iii. Significance of the following plants in ethno botanical practices                              (along with their habitat and morphology)

  1. a) Azadirachta indica, b) Ocimum sanctum, c) Vitex negundo, d) Gloriosa superba, e) Tribulus terrestris, f) Phyllanthus                      niruri , g) Cassia auriculata, h) Indigofera tinctoria , i) Senna                            auriculata j).Curcuma longa.
  2. Role of ethnic groups in the conservation of plant genetic           resources.

 

Unit-III: Ethnobotany as a tool to protect interests of ethnic groups      (12hrs)

  1. Sharing of wealth concept with few examples from India.
  2. Biopiracy, Intellectual Property Rights and Traditional Knowledge.

 

Unit -IV: History, Scope and Importance of Medicinal Plants.                                  indigenous Medicinal Sciences                   (12hrs)

       

  1. Definition and Scope-Ayurveda: History, origin,                                        panchamahabhutas, saptadhatu and tridosha concepts,                                      Rasayana, plants used in ayurvedic treatments.
  2. Siddha: Origin of Siddha medicinal systems, Basis of Siddha

system, plants used in Siddha medicine.

iii.  Unani: History, concept: Umoor-e- tabiya, tumors treatments/                     therapy, polyherbal formulations (in brief).

 

Unit -V: Conservation of endangered and endemic medicinal plants:    (12hrs)

  1. Definition: endemic and endangered medicinal plants,
  2. Red list criteria

          iii. In situ conservation: Biosphere reserves, sacred groves,                                 National Parks

  1. Ex situ conservation: Botanical Gardens.

 

Suggested Activities: Studying plant utilization methods by tribal/rural/migrant populations for their beverages, food,medicinal and uses, seminars on role of ethnic groups in conservation of plant genetic resources, project work on traditional knowledge about plant medicines, study of indigenous medicinal sciences and their efficacy.

 

Suggested Readings:

1)  S.K. Jain, Manual of Ethnobotany, Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, 1995.

2) Glimpses of Indian. Ethnobotny, Oxford and I B H, New Delhi – 1981.

3)  S.K. Jain (ed.) 1989. Methods and approaches in ethnobotany. Society of

ethnobotanists, Lucknow, India.

4)  S.K. Jain, 1990. Contributions of Indian ethnobotny.Scientific publishers,

Jodhpur.

5)  Colton C.M. 1997. Ethnobotany – Principles and applications. John Wiley          and sons – Chichester

6)  Rama Ro, N and A.N. Henry (1996). The Ethnobotany of Eastern Ghats in

Andhra Pradesh, India.Botanical Survey of India. Howrah.

  1. Trivedi P C, 2006. Medicinal Plants: Ethnobotanical Approach, Agrobios, India.
  2. Purohit and Vyas, 2008. Medicinal Plant Cultivation: A Scientific Approach, 2nd edn. Agrobios, India.
  3. Pal, D.C. & Jain, S.K., 1998. Tribal Medicine. Naya Prakash Publishers, Calcutta
  4. Raychudhuri, S.P., 1991. (Ed.) Recent advances in Medicinal aromatic and spice crops. Vol.1, Today& Tomorrow’s printers and publishers,          New Delhi

Cluster Elective VIII-A-2: Practical:

ETHNOBOTANY AND MEDICINAL BOTANY

  1. Ethnobotanical specimens as prescribed in theory syllabus
  2. Detailed morphological and anatomical study of medicinally important part(s) of locally available plants (Minimum 8 plants) used in traditional medicine.
  3. Field visits to identify and collect ethno medicinal plants used by local tribes/folklore.

Domain skills expected to achieve: Identification of various plant parts used as medicines by ethnic groups, understanding the difference between ancient wisdom and modern system of medicine, traditional medicine at the rescue of curing drug resistant maladies like malaria and viral diseases, understanding the role of spices in Indian kitchens, their therapeutic role

PRACTICAL- VIII-A-2 Cluster Elective : MODEL QUESTION PAPER

Paper VIII-A-2: ETHNOBOTANY AND MEDICINAL BOTANY

Time: 3 Hours                                                                        Max. Marks- 50

  1. Identify the specimen A- Give reasons (morphological and anatomical) and draw labeled sketches                         15marks
  2. Identify and write about the medicinal uses of B-and C- 2×5= 10 marks.

III. Comment on D and E.                                                                 2x 4=8 marks

  1. Report on Field visit: 7 marks

List to be prepared mentioning special features of plants used by tribal    populations as Medicinal Plants & Spices. Write their botanical and common names, parts used and diseases/disorders for which they are prescribed.

  1. Viva-voce               5 marks
  2. Record      5 marks

———–                                                                                       Total        =              50 marks

  KEY                                                                                                  

A-Plants given in unit II (i)

B-Plants used in Ayurvedic prearations (Amla in Chyavanprash, Senna in Laxatives)

C – – Do –

  1. Photographs of National parks, Biosphere reserves and Botanical gardens.
  2. Photograph of famous personalities in Ayurveda/Siddha medicine.

 

III B. Sc – BOTANY SYLLABUS   SEMESTER- VIII

CLUSTER ELECTIVE, Paper VIII-A-3

Paper VIII-A-3: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry

Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week

 

Unit-I: Pharmacognosy                                                                       (12hrs)                                                                           

Definition, Importance, Classification of drugs – Chemical and

Pharmacological, Drug evaluation methods

 

Unit –II: Organoleptic and microscopic studies:  (12hrs)

Organoleptic and microscopic studies with reference to nature of                    active principles and common adulterants   of Alstonia                                       scholaris (bark), Adhatoda vasica(leaf), Strychnos nuxvomica                             (seed),  Rauwolfia serpentina(root)  and Zinziber officinalis                            Catharanthus roseus.

 

Unit-III: Secondary Metabolites:                                                 (12hrs)

  1. Definition of primary and secondary metabolites and their differences, major types – terpenes, phenolics, alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids.
  2. A brief idea about extraction of alkaloids.Origin of secondary metabolites – detailed account of acetate pathway, mevalonate pathway, shikimate pathway.

UNIT-IV: Phytochemistry:                                                                 (12hrs)

Biosynthesis and sources of drugs:

  • Phenols and phenolic glycosides : structural types, biosynthesis, importance of simple phenolic compounds, tannins, anthraquinones, coumarins and furanocoumarins, flavones and related flavonoid glycosides, anthocyanins, betacyanins, stilbenes, lignins and lignans).

(ii)  Steroids, sterols, saponins, withanolides, ecdysones, cucurbitacins:

Biosynthesis,  commercial importance.

(iii)  Alkaloids: Different groups, biosynthesis, bioactivity.

(v)  Volatile oils, aromatherapy.

UNIT-V: Enzymes, proteins and amino acids as drugs:                  (12hrs)

  1. Vaccines, toxins and toxoids, antitoxins, immune globulins, antiserums,
  2. Vitamins, Antibiotics – chemical nature, mode of action.

iii. Pharmacological action of plant drugs – tumor inhibitors, PAF antagonists, antioxidants, phytoestrogens and others.

  1. Role of different enzyme inhibitors.

Suggested Activities:  Isolation techniques of active principles from various parts of popular medicinal plants, debates on the efficacy of plant medicines and palliative cure, volatile oils from plants-extraction methods, project work on crude drugs

BOOKS FOR REFERENCE:

  1. Wallis, T. E. 1946. Text book of Pharmacognosy, J & A Churchill Ltd. 2. Roseline, A.  2011.  Pharmacognosy.  MJP Publishers, Chennai.
  2. Gurdeep Chatwal, 1980. Organic chemistry of natural productis.

Vol.I.Himalaya Publishing house.

  1. Kalsi, P. S. and Jagtap, S., 2012. Pharmaceutical medicinal and natural product chemistry  N.K. Mehra .  Narosa Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.           New Delhi.
  2. Agarwal, O. P. 2002. Organic chemistry–Chemistry of organic natural

products.  Vol. II. Goel publishing house , Meerut.

  1. Harborne, J. B. 1998.  Phytochemical methods –a guide to modern   techniques of plant analysis 3 rd edition, Chapman and Hall
  2. Datta & Mukerji, 1952. Pharmacognosy of Indian roots of Rhizome Bulletin No.1 Ministry of Health, Govt. of India.

VIII-A-3: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry: PRACTICALS

  1. Physical and chemical tests for evaluation of unorganized drugs- Asaphoetida. Honey, Castor oil. Acacia
  2. Identification of bark drugs – cinchona, cinnamom
  3. Identification of fruit drugs – Cardamom, Coriander
  4. Identification of root and rhizome drugs- Ginger, Garlic, Turmeric
  5. Identification of whole plant – Aloes,Vinca, Punarnava
  6. Herbarium of medicinal plants ( minimum of 20 platns)
  7. Collection of locally available crude drugs from local venders (minimum of 20)

Domain skills expected to achieve: Identification of various plant parts used as medicines, extraction of active principles from them, isolation by chromatographic techniques, learning callus culture techniques for secondary metabolite enrichment and understanding ethno-pharmacological principles

PRACTICAL: VIII-A-3 Cluster Elective: MODEL QUESTION PAPER

Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry

Time: 3hrs.                                                                                       Max. Marks=50

 

  1. Identify the given crude drugs A& B by morphological study and chemical tests. 10 marks

 

  1. Perform suitable chemical test and identify the given phytochemical C

10  marks

 

III. Comment on D and E                                                          2×5=10 marks

 

  1. Herbarium and submission of drugs -10 marks
  2. Viva-Voce 5 marks
  3. Practical Record 5 marks

 

————————

                                                                                 Total             =         50 marks

KEY

A-Flower/fruit drugs

B-Rhizome/whole plant drugs

C- Tannins/ phenolics/steroids/ isoprenoids /Asaphoetida/ Honey/ Castor oil/ Acacia

  1. Column Chromatography/ Gas Chromatogram/HPLC (photograph/ instrument used for chemical analysis of drugs
  2. photograh/instrument used for tissue culture

 

Andhra Pradesh State Council of Higher Education

 

III B.Sc.: BOTANY SYLLABUS   SEMESTER- VI

 

Cluster Electives, CLUSTER–B

CLUSTER ELECTIVE, PAPER–VIII-B-1

Paper VIII-B-1: Biological instrumentation and Methodology

Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week

 

Unit -I: Imaging and related techniques:                                                                   (12hrs) 

Principles of microscopy; Light microscopy; Fluorescence microscopy; Electron Microscopy (a) Flow cytometry  (b) Applications of fluorescence microscopy: Chromosome banding, FISH, chromosome painting; Transmission and Scanning electron microscopy – sample preparation for electron microscopy, cryofixation, negative staining, shadow casting, freeze fracture, freeze etching.

Unit- II: pH and Centrifugation:                                                                              (12 hrs)

pH meter: Principles and instrumentation, Centrifugation: Principles, types of centrifuges, types of rotors, differential and density gradient centrifugation, application. Sonication, Freeze drying.

 

Unit- III: Spectrophotometry:                                                                                   (12hrs)

Principle involved in Spectrophotometer; Spectrophotometric techniques, Instrumentation: ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry (single anddouble beam, double wavelength spectrophotometers), Infrared spectrometers – Luminometry and densitometry – principles and their applications – Mass Spectroscopy- principlesof analysis, application in Biology.

 

Unit- IV: Chromatography:                                                                                        (12hrs)

Chromatographic techniques: Principle and applications – Column – thin layer –paper, affinity and gaschromatography – Gel filtration – Ion exchange and High performance liquid chromatography techniques– Examplesof application for each chromatographic system – Basic principles of electrophoresis.

 

Unit-V:Preparation of molar, molal and normal solutions, buffers, the art of scientific writing

                                                                                                                                     (12hrs)

Understanding the details on the label of reagent bottles.Molarity and normality of common acids and bases.Preparation of solutions.Dilutions.Percentage solutions.Molar, molal and normal solutions. Technique of handling micropipettes; Knowledge about common toxic chemicals and safety measures in their handling.

The art of scientific writing and presentation of scientific matter.Scientific writing and ethics.Writing references.Powerpoint presentation.Poster presentation.

Introduction to copyright-academic misconduct/plagiarism in scientific writing.

 

Suggested Readings:

  1. Bajpai, P.K. 2006. Biological Instrumentation and methodology. S. Chand & Co. Ltd.
  2. Wilson and J. Walker Eds. 2005. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

Cambridge University Press.

  1. Wilson andKHGoulding. 1986. Principles and techniques of Practical

Biochemistry. (3 edn) Edward  Arnold, London.

  1. Dawson, C. (2002). Practical research methods.UBS Publishers, New Delhi.
  2. Stapleton, P., Yondeowei, A., Mukanyange, J., Houten, H. (1995). Scientific

writing for agricultural research scientists – a training reference manual.

West Africa Rice Development Association, Hong Kong.

  1. Ruzin, S.E. (1999). Plant micro technique and microscopy. Oxford

University Press, New York, U.S.A.

Suggested activities: Preparing various laboratory reagents, operating laboratory instruments, noting instrument readings, calculating results accurately, Skills on writing scientific articles, presentation of scientific resultsthrough tables, graphs, poster presentations and practicing power point presentations.

Paper VIII-B-1: PRACTICAL SYLLABUS

  1. Microscopy – Light microscopy: principles, parts & function
  2. Micrometry- principle and measurement of microscopic objects: Low power and high power.
  3. Camera Lucida drawing with magnification and scale.
  4. Principle and working of phase contrast microscope
  5. Principle & operation of Centrifuge
  6. Preparation of standard acid and alkali and their standardization.
  7. b) Preparation of various solutions (normal, molar, and percent) and ppm/ppb

by serial dilutions

  1. Study of principle and working of pH meter and Measurement of pH of

Milk, Pepsi, Lemon juice etc. using pH paper and pH meter

  1. Study of principle of Chromatography and separation of amino acids mixture

By ascending Paper Chromatography

  1. Principle & operation of Colorimeter
  2. Principle & operation of Spectrophotometer
  3. Chromosome banding, FISH, chromosome painting
  4. Principle and technique of TLC (demonstration)
  5. TLC separation of Amino acids from purified samples and biological materials (demonstration)

11 PCR – The Polymerase Chain Reaction (protocol) -demonstration

  1. Study visit to an institute /laboratory

Domain skills expected to achieve:

Skill in operating laboratory equipment, their upkeep, and adept at various biological techniques. Ability to prepare molar, molal, normal solutions and solutions of different dilutions.Interpreting scientific results, and ability to present results in a scientific way through graphs, photographs, poster presentations and power point presentations.

 

Paper VIII-B-1: Theory: Biological instrumentation and Methodology

PRACTICAL MODEL PAPER

 

  1. Perform the experiment (A). Write the protocol of the experiment – 15 marks
  2. Measure the pH of given sample (B) using pH paper and pH meter. Write the procedure and observation.                                                                                            10 marks
  3. Identify C, D, and E. Write the principle and use of them. 3X5 -15 marks
  4. Viva voce on Field visit                         05 marks
  5. Record 05 marks

 

Key

  1. Amino acid separation by paper chromatography
  2. Milk, Pepsi, Lemon juice etc
  3. Camera Lucida/ Micrometer/phase contrast microscope
  4. Colorimeter/ Spectrophotometer
  5. Chromosome banding, FISH, chromosome painting

 

(Cluster Electives –B)

III B.Sc.: BOTANY SYLLABUS   SEMESTER- VI, CLUSTER ELECTIVE -2-B

PAPER – VIII-B-2

Paper VIII-B-2: Mushroom Culture and Technology

Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week

 

Unit I: Introduction, history:                                                                                          (12hrs)

Introduction – history – scope of edible mushroom cultivation, Types of edible mushrooms available in India –Volvariellavolvacea, Pleurotuscitrinopileatus, Agaricusbisporus. Nutritional and medicinal value of edible mushrooms; Poisonous mushrooms.

UNIT II:Pure culture-spawn preparation:                                                               (12hrs)

Pure culture – preparation of medium (PDA and Oatmeal agar medium)sterilization – preparation of test tube slants to store mother culture – culturingofPleurotus mycelium on Petriplates, preparation of mother spawn in salinebottle and polypropylene bag and their multiplication.

 

Unit III: Cultivation Technology:                                                                               (12hrs)

Infrastructure: Substrates (locally available) Polythene bags, vessels, Inoculation hook, inoculation loop, low cost stove, sieves, culture rack, mushroom unit (Thatched house) water sprayer, tray, small polythene bag. Mushroom bed preparation – paddy straw, sugarcane trash, maize straw, banana leaves. Factors affecting the mushroom bed preparation – Low cost technology, composting technology in mushroom production.

Unit IV:Storage and nutrition :                                                                                    (12hrs)

Short-term storage (Refrigeration – up to 24 hours) Long term Storage (canning, pickels, papads), drying, storage in saltsolutions. Nutrition – Proteins – amino acids, mineral elements nutrition – Carbohydrates, Crude fibre content – Vitamins.

Unit V:FoodPreparation:                                                                                                 (12hrs)

Types of foods prepared from mushrooms;soup,cutlet omlette,samosa,pickles and curry .ResearchCentres – National level and Regional level. Cost benefit ratio – Marketing in India and abroad, Export Value.

Suggested Readings:                                      

  1. Marimuthu, T. Krishnamoorthy, A.S. Sivaprakasam, K. and Jayarajan. R (1991) Oyster Mushrooms, Department of Plant Pathology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.
  2. Swaminathan, M. (1990) Food and Nutrition. Bappco, The Bangalore Printing and Publishing Co. Ltd., No. 88, Mysore Road, Bangalore – 560018.
  3. Tewari, Pankaj Kapoor, S.C., (1988). Mushroom cultivation, Mittal Publications, Delhi.
  4. Nita Bahl (1984-1988) Hand book of Mushrooms, II Edition, Vol. I & Vol. II.

5.Biswas, S., ‎M. Datta and S.V. Ngachan. 2011. Mushrooms: A Manual For Cultivation. PHI learning private Ltd., New Delhi, India.

  1. Chang, S. and P.G. Miles. 2004. Mushrooms: cultivation, nutritional value, medicinal effect, and environmental impact. CRC Press. USA.
  2. Miles, P.G. and S. Chang. 1997. Mushroom Biology:

Concise basics and current developments. World Scientific

Publishing Co. Pte.Ltd. Singapore.

Suggested activities: Growing spawn on laboratory prepared medium in petriplates and maintaining, preparing compost and compost beds, packing of beds, spawning, maintaining moisture, picking, blanching and packing. Collecting naturally growing mushrooms and identifying them properly,visits to mushroom houses.

Paper VIII-B-2: PRACTRICAL SYLLABUS

  1. Identification of different edible and poisonous mushrooms.
  2. Microscopic and anatomical observations of different mushroom species.
  3. Pure culture – preparation of medium (PDA and Oatmeal agar medium) sterilization.
  4. Isolation and preparation of spawn under controlled conditions(preparation of mother spawn in saline bottle and polypropylene bag and their multiplication).
  5. Types of Compost preparation and sterilization.
  6. Mushroom bed preparation – paddy straw, sugarcane trash, maize straw, banana leaves/waste.
  7. Inoculation and spawning of compost.
  8. Incubation and harvesting of mushrooms (collection, drying and preservation).
  9. Diseases of mushrooms (photographs).
  10. Post-harvest technology steps (photographs).
  11. Study tour to mushroom cultivation farms
  12. Project work – cultivation of paddy straw/ oyster/white button mushrooms.

Domain skills expected to achieve: Identification of different edible species, skill in media and substrate preparation, isolation of pure culture for spawn, compost preparation, and practices in growing methods of different cultivated mushrooms,Postharvest handling and packing

SCHEME OF PRACTICAL EXAMINATION

PAPER – VIII-B-2 (Cluster Elective): Mushroom Culture and Technology

PRACTICAL- VIII-B-2: Cluster Elective (MODEL QUESTION PAPER)

Time: 3hrs                                                                                           Max. Marks: 50

 

  1. Prepare the culture medium for isolation of spawn and make the slants. Write the protocol for preparation of the medium (A)                                                                  20 marks

 

II.Write the protocol for preparation of compost (B)                                      08 marks

 

III.   Comment on given specimens C, D and E                                             3×4 = 12 marks

 

  1. Report on Field visit                05 marks
  2. Practical Record                                                              05 marks

Total =         50 marks

KEY

A-PDA /Oatmeal agar medium

B- Paddy straw compost

C – Edible mushroom (Photograph)

D- Poisonous mushroom (Photograph)

  1. Preservation technique (Photograph)

Cluster Electives – B

III B.Sc.: Botany Syllabus   Semester- VI, Theory: Cluster Elective –B-3

PAPER – VIII-B-3 (Cluster Elective)

Paper VIII-B-3: Internship/ Project Work preferably either in an Institute or Industry

                                                    B.Sc – BOTANY

SEMESTER-V/VI:  THEORY MODEL PAPER

(General Model Paper)

Time: 3 Hours                                                                                               Max. Marks:75

SECTION-A (Short Answer Questions)

(Instructions to the paper setter: Set minimum ONE question from each unit, maximum Eight from all.)

 

Answer any five of the following question                                                     5×5=25M

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

SECTION-B (Essay Questions)

(Instructions to the paper setter: Set minimum two questions from each unit, either or internal choice)

Answer All of the following questions                                                                        5×10=50M

  1. 9. a)

              Or                                                          from unit I

 b)

 

  1. a)

              Or                                                          from unit II

      b)

 

  1. a)

              Or                                                          from unit III

      b)

 

  1. a)

              Or                                                          from unit IV

      b)

 

  1. a)

              Or                                                          from unit V

      b)

 

   INTERNAL EXAMS                                                                       – 25Marks

( 15 marks for unit tests, 5 marks for assignments and remaining 5 marks for seminar etc.)

 

 

A.P. State Council of Higher Education

Revised Common Framework of CBCS for Colleges in Andhra Pradesh

w.e.f. 2015-16, Revised in April, 2016

 

Table-7: B.Sc., SEMESTER – I

 

Sno Course Total Marks Mid Sem Exam* Sem End Exam Teaching Hours Credits
1 First Language

(Tel/Hin/Urdu/Sans…)

100 25 75 4 3
2 Second Language

English

100 25 75 4 3
3 Foundation Course – 1

Human Values & Professional Ethics

50 0 50 2 2
4 Foundation course -2

Environmental Studies

50 0 50 2 2
5 DSC-1 Paper-1

(Core)

100 25 75 4 3
6 DSC 1  Lab Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
7 DSC 2  Paper-1

(Core)

100 25 75 4 3
8 DSC 2  Lab Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
9 DSC 3  Paper-1

(Core)

100 25 75 4 3
10 DSC 3 A Lab Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
Total 750 30 25

#DSC: Domain (Subject) Specific Course (Paper)

Foundation Course: value or skill based

Note: For Science Domain Subjects which had no lab practical component earlier (eg. Mathematics) the following format is applicable. They, however, will have co-curricular activities (eg. Problem solving sessions etc.). The total marks will change accordingly for such combinations. For example for Maths, Physics and Chemistry the total marks will be 700.

DSC (without Lab Practical) 100 25 75 6 5

 

*Mid sem exam at the college (The marks split between Formal Test and Co-curricular activities may be decided by the University concerned). End Sem Exam by the Univ.

*Practical component will not be applicable to those science subjects which had no such component earlier (ex. Mathematics)

**Syllabus size shall be in accordance with the number of teaching hours

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table-8: B.Sc., SEMESTER – II

 

 

Sno Course Total Marks Mid Sem Exam Sem End Exam Teaching Hours Credits
1 First Language

(Tel/Hin/Urdu/Sans…)

100 25 75 4 3
2 Second Language

English

100 25 75 4 3
3 Foundation course – 3

ICT – I

50 0 50 2 2
4 Foundation course – 4

CSS – I

50 0 50 2 2
5 DSC 1 Paper-2

(Core)

100 25 75 4 3
6 DSC 1  Lab Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
7 DSC 2  Paper-2

(Core)

100 25 75 4 3
8 DSC 2  Lab Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
9 DSC 3  Paper-2

(Core)

100 25 75 4 3
10 DSC 3  Lab Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
Total 750 30 25

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.Sc. Table-9: B.Sc., SEMESTER – III

 

SEMESTER – III

Sno Course Total Marks Mid Sem Exam Sem End Exam Teaching Hours Credits
1 First Language

(Tel/Hin/Urdu/Sans…)

100 25 75 4 3
2 Second Language

English

100 25 75 4 3
3 Foundation Course – 5

ICT – II

50 0 50 2 2
4 Foundation course – 6

CSS – II

50 0 50 2 2
5 DSC 1  Paper-3

(Core)

100 25 75 4 3
6 DSC 1  Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
7 DSC 2  Paper-3

(Core)

100 25 75 4 3
8 DSC 2  Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
9 DSC 3  Paper-3

(Core)

100 25 75 4 3
10 DSC 3  Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
Total 750 30 25

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table-10: B.Sc., SEMESTER – IV

 

SEMESTER – IV

Sno Course Total Marks Mid Sem Exam* Sem End Exam Teaching Hours** Credits
1 Foundation Course – 7

CSS – 2

50

 

0

 

50

 

2

 

2

 

2 Foundation Course – 8

Analytical Skills

50

 

0 50 2 2
3 Foundation Course – 9

Entrepreneurship

50 0 50 2 2
4 Foundation course – 10

Leadership Education

50 0 50 2 2
5 DSC 1  Paper-4

(Core)

100 25 75 4 3
6 DSC 1  Lab Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
7 DSC 2  Paper-4

(Core)

100 25 75 4 3
8 DSC 2  Lab Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
9 DSC 3  Paper-4

(Core)

100 25 75 4 3
10 DSC 3  Lab Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
Total 750 30 23

*Analytical Skills: To be taught by Maths/Stat Teachers (may be partly by English Teachers)

Entrepreneurship: To be taught by Commerce Teachers

Leadership Education: To be taught by Telugu Teachers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table-11: B.Sc., SEMESTER – V

 

 

Sno Course Total Marks Mid Sem Exam Sem End Exam Teaching Hours Credits
1 DSC 1  Paper-5

(Core)

100 25 75 3 3
2 DSC 1  Lab Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
3 DSC 2   Paper-5

(Core)

100 25 75 3 3
4 DSC 2  Lab Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
5 DSC 3  Paper-5

(Core)

100 25 75 3 3
6 DSC 3  Lab Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
7 DSC 1 Paper-6

(Core)

100 25 75 3 3
8 DSC 1 Lab Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
9 DSC 2  Paper -6

(Core)

100 25 75 3 3
10 DSC 2  Lab Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
11 DSC 3  Paper-6

(Core)

100 25 75 3 3
12 DSC 3  Lab Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
Total 900 30 30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table-12: B.Sc., SEMESTER – VI

 

Sno Course Total Marks Mid Sem Exam Sem End Exam Teaching Hours Credits
1 Elective 1:

DSC 1, Paper -7

(applied/adv)

100 25 75 3 3
2 Elective-1 Lab Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
3 Elective-1:

DSC 2, Paper -7

(applied/adv)

100 25 75 3 3
4 Elective-2 Lab Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
5 Elective-1:

DSC 3, Paper -7

(applied/adv)

100 25 75 3 3
6 Elective-3 Lab Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
7 Elective -2:

DSC 1, Paper -8

App/Inter-domain/Gen El

100 25 75 3 3
8 Elective-2 Lab Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
9 Elective -2:

DSC 2, Paper -8

App/Inter-domain/Gen El

100 25 75 3 3
10 Elective-2 Lab Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
11 Elective -2:

DSC 3, Paper -8

App/Inter-domain/Gen El

100 25 75 3 3
12 Elective-2 Lab Practical

 

50 0 50 2 2
Total 900 30 30

*7th paper of each of the domain specific subjects (1st paper of semester VI) will be a domain related Elective. More than one Elective may be offered giving choice to students. The Electives may be of Domain specific applied or advanced (specialization) in nature. The number of Electives may be decided (along with the syllabus) by the University concerned keeping the feasibility of conduct of University examinations in view.

** Applied Elective: It is desirable that around 25% of syllabus is taught by field experts. The college has to make such an arrangement.

 

*8th paper of each of the domain specific subjects (2nd paper of semester VI) will also be an Elective. The Electives may be of Inter-domain Clusters**- each Cluster having three papers with or without project work. or General in nature. The number of Clusters may be decided (along with the syllabus) by the University concerned keeping the feasibility of conduct of University examinations in view. It is desirable that around 25% of syllabus is taught by field experts.

**Cluster:: In the last semester, for paper-8, each domain subject has one elective totaling three papers for each student. Electives may be given as Clusters of three papers each for each subject. A student can opt for all the three papers of the same subject (cluster or stream) including or excluding project work for a wider learning experience. The student will not study the other two domain subjects for paper-8.

Total Credits for a B.Sc. Course: 158

 

TIME TABLE- 2018-19

DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY

Time/Period 1 2 3  

 

L  UNCH

 BREAK

4 5 6
Day 10.00 – 11.00 11.00 – 12.00 12.00 – 1.00 2.00 – 3.00 3.00 – 4.00 4.00 – 5.00
MON II G PRACTICALS (PRR+GRK) III B PRACTICALS (NSN+VP)
  III F/G (VP)

III B (NSN)

  I F/G (GRK)    
TUE III F PRACTICALS (VP+GRK) I G PRACTICALS (GRK+NSN)
  II B (PRR) III B (NSN)   III F/G (VP)

II F/G (PRR)

 
WED III G PRACTICALS (VP+GRK) III B PRACTICALS (VP+PRR)
II F/G (PRR)

III B (NSN)

  II B (PRR) III F/G (NSN)

I B ( GRK )

I F/G ( GRK )  
THU II B PRACTICALS (PRR+NSN) II F PRACTICALS (PRR+VP)
III F/G (VP) III F/G (NSN)

I F/G (GRK)

III B (VP) I B (GRK)    
FRI I B PRACTICALS (GRK+VP) III F PRACTICALS (NSN+PRR)
III F/G (NSN)

II B (PRR)

II F/G (PRR)   I B (GRK) I F/G (GRK) III B (VP)
SAT I F PRACTICALS (GRK+NSN) III G PRACTICALS (NSN+PRR)
    II B(PRR) III B (VP) II F/G(PRR) I B (GRK)

 GOVT. DEGREE COLLEGE (MEN), SRIKAKULAM.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

Action  Plan for Academic Year  2018-2019

S.No Month      Activity
01 June 2018 Admission Work.

Resolved  to complete the syllabus

Before the end of the Jan 2018.

02 July  2018 Organization of  Mendel,s Birth day on 22.07.2018.

Conduct of 1st Unit test in the last week.

03 Augst 2018 Organization of Guest Lecture .

Conduct of 2nd Unit test in the last week.

04 Sept  2018 Organization of Teacher,sday

Qrganization of Guest Lecture.

05 Oct 2018 Half-Yearly  Examinations.
06 Nov 2018 Organization Botanical Tour toDonubayi and ArakuVelly.
07 Dec 2018 Organization of Nationl Seminar sponsoredUGC

Conduct of3rd Unit test in the last week.

08 Jan 2019 Completion of  Syllabus by the end of the month.

Conduct of Hope Examinations.

09 Feb2019 Consolidation and Submission of Attendance.

Commencement of Practical Examinations.

10 Mar2019 Commencement of University Examinations.

Toppers List of Last Three Years

DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY
 

Toppers List of Last Three Years

2017-18

Sno Hall Ticket Student Name Group CGPA Rank
1 S1500135041 K.Pranaya B.Z.C (EM) 9.53 1
2 S1500135064 A.Rajeswari B.Z.C (EM) 9.51 2
2 S1500135008 B. PRAZNA B.Z.C (EM) 9.30 3

 

2016-17

Sno Student Name Year & Group Specialization CGPA Place
1 K.JHANSI RANI III B.SC CBZ 9.7 1ST
2 K.RAMU III B.Sc CBZ 9.1 1ST
3 D.LALITHA III B.Sc CBZ 9.1 1ST
4 M.KIRAN III B.Sc CBZ 9.1 1ST

 

 

 

2015-16

Sno Student Name Year & Group Specialization CGPA Place
1 R.TEJASWINI III B.SC CBZ 9.3 1ST
2 CH.HIRANYA III B.Sc CBZ 9.2 1ST

 

 

 

 

GOVT. DEGREE COLLEGE (MEN), SRIKAKULAM

DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY

RESULT ANALYSIS – B.Sc FINAL YEAR

 

S.No. Year No. of      Students        appeared No. of        Students passed Pass            percentage
1 2012-13 57 43 75
2 2013-14 81 68 84
3 2014-15 84 44 52.38
4 2015-16 93 49 53
5 2016-17 92 60 65.21
6 2017-18

Sem5

122 106 87
Sem6 52 49 94.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY

 

INTERNET FACILITY ‘e’ LEARNING

 

 

 

S.No. ADDRESS OF THE WEBSITE
1 http://www.colby.edu/info.tech/BI211/Bio211.html

 

2 http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/tfp/tfphome1.html
3 http://www.life.uiuc.edu/plantbio/260/

 

4 http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/taes/tracy/203/menu.html
5 http://www.facstaff.bucknell.edu/abrahmsn/bi330/index.html

 

6 http://academic.reed.edu/biology/courses/BIO332/

 

7 http://www.und.nodak.edu/dept/Plants/biology336/336noframes.html

 

8 http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/bot461syl_2001.htm

 

9 http://arnica.csustan.edu/boty3700/

 

10 http://www.aspb.org/education/

 

11 http://www.aspb.org/education/teach_1st_time.cfm

 

12 http://plantphys.info

 

13 http://legacy.ncsu.edu/WPS202/general/intro/wood.html

 

14 http://web.archive.org/web/20010223075904/http://www.uoguelph.ca/botany/courses/BOT*3410/outline2000f.htm
15 http://www.psaalgae.org/

 

16 http://www.cytographics.com

 

17 http://ag.arizona.edu/azaqua/algae.html
18 http://www.sou.edu/biology/Courses/Bi542/Bi542.htm

 

19 http://www2.una.edu/pdavis/bryophytes.htm

 

20 http://www.botany.ubc.ca/bryophyte/index.html
21 http://scitec.uwichill.edu.bb/bcs/bl14apl/bryo1.htm
22 http://www.sou.edu/biology/Courses/Bi542/Bi542.htm

 

23 http://www2.una.edu/pdavis/bryophytes.htm

 

24 http://www.botany.ubc.ca/bryophyte/index.html
25 http://scitec.uwichill.edu.bb/bcs/bl14apl/bryo1.htm
26 http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/biolherb/botn328.htm
27 http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/syllabus/
28 http://www.biotechno.netfirms.com
29 Htpp://www.know plants.org
30 www.plant pictures.com
31 www.teaching botany.org
32 Encyclopedia brittanica
33 Encyclopedia Encarta
34 UGC.ac.in
35 CCE apgov.in
36 www.andhraunivesity. info./in

 

 

 

 

 

Plant Taxonomy and Systematic Botany

One of the problems those of us in the north encounter is the lack of live material when we are teaching courses in this area. Dr Margaret Kuchenreuther has a suggestion which is in the archives of the Plant-ed discussion group.
http://www.bio.net/bionet/cgi-bin/ifetch?plant-ed+700519877418+F

For course outlines see the following

http://www.botany.utoronto.ca/courses/BOT307/307homep.html
http://www.botany.utoronto.ca/courses/BOT307/F_Organization/307Ontflora.html

http://www.colby.edu/info.tech/BI211/Bio211.html

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/tfp/tfphome1.html

http://www.life.uiuc.edu/plantbio/260/
http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/taes/tracy/203/menu.html   

http://www.facstaff.bucknell.edu/abrahmsn/bi330/index.html

http://academic.reed.edu/biology/courses/BIO332/

http://www.und.nodak.edu/dept/Plants/biology336/336noframes.html

http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/bot461syl_2001.htmhttp://arnica.csustan.edu/boty3700
Plant Physiology

The American Society of Plant Biologists has a very good education page and also a page for those teaching plant physiology for the first time.
http://www.aspb.org/education/

http://www.aspb.org/education/teach_1st_time.cfm

Other sites and courses of interest are shown below.

http://plantphys.info

http://www.ou.edu/cas/botany-micro/bot-linx/subject/sub-clas.shtml

Plant Anatomy

http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/webb/BOT410/anatweb/pages/bot410LecDirPg1.htm

http://legacy.ncsu.edu/WPS202/general/intro/wood.html

http://web.archive.org/web/20010223075904/http://www.uoguelph.ca/botany/courses/BOT*3410/outline2000f.htm

http://www.uri.edu/artsci/bio/plant_anatomy/images.html

Phycology

A wealth of information can be found at the Phycological Society of America site
http://www.psaalgae.org/

Also check out these other sites which have good images and ideas for courses

http://www.seaweed.ie/teaching.html

http://www.cytographics.com

http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/presents/algae1/6.htm

http://www.towson.edu/~hull/Courses/Botany/Links/Algae.html

http://ag.arizona.edu/azaqua/algae.html
 

Bryology

http://www.sou.edu/biology/Courses/Bi542/Bi542.htm

http://www2.una.edu/pdavis/bryophytes.htm

http://www.botany.ubc.ca/bryophyte/index.html

Mycology

Tom Volk’s site is a good place to start
http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/

He also has a good section especially for teachers
http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/teachers.html

 

http://biodiversity.uno.edu/~fungi/fteach.html
 

Plant Ecology

See the following link

http://www.sru.edu/depts/artsci/bio/ecolsect.htm#teaching ecology

Also these courses
http://mypage.iusb.edu/~dmarr/L473syllabus.html

Plants and Society

http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/biolherb/botn328.htm

http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/syllabus/

[TABS_R id=858]

 

Department of botany

Best and Innovative practices.

 

Best practices:

2017-2018.

Drip irrigation project was undertaken as best practice for the year 2017-18.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2016-17

Best practice for this year was maintaining pond ecosystem in our botanical garden.We have placed some hydrophytic plants like Nymphaea,Lemna,Eicchornia,Hydrilla,Typha,Chara,Spirogyra,Ipomea etc.Still it is being maintained in our botanical garden.

 

2015-16

Mushroom culture was undertaken in the year 2015-16.Students were also trained.

 

 

INNOVATIVE PRACTICES

2017-18:

VERMI COMPOST preparation was undertaken as innovative practice in the year 2017-18.

 

2016-17:

Sri K.Prakasa rao,Lecturer in Botany prepared some herbal drugs for Blood pressure and Diabetis and distributed them free off cost to the needy people.

 

 

Seminars/Workshops Conducted

 

National /State/Regional conferences/workshops/Seminars organizedby the Dept. of Botany:

 

S. No Dates Title of the Conference / workshop/Seminar conducted Names of Resource persons
1 7th & 8th August 2013 2-Day National  Seminar on “Biodiversity and Conservation of Medicinal Plants” Funded by UGC-SERO 1. Dr. N. Rama Rao, Scientist ‘G’ ICFRE, Hyderabad.

2. Prof. Vatsavaya S. Raju

Dept. of Botany

Kakatiya University, Warangal.

3. Prof. TVV Seetharami Reddi,

Dept. of Botany, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam

4. Dr. BVA Rama Rao Naidu, Ethnobotanical Scientist, Srikakulam.

5. Dr. Andra S. Murty, Former Director, NBRI, Lucknow.

6. Dr. Koppula Hemadri, Founder, House of Tribal Medicine, Vijayawada.

7. Prof. Niranjan Behera, Ex- Head, School of Life Sciences, Sambalpur University, Oisha.

2 28th November 2017 1-Day Regional Workshop On “Faculty Awareness Programme on Cluster ‘A’ of IV Semester in Botany” Funded by local affiliated Colleges. 1.      Dr. BVA Rama Rao Naidu, Ethnobotanical Scientist, Srikakulam.

2.      Dr. Sreenivasa Rao, Principal, SVS Degree College, Srikakulam.

3.      Smt. R. Ramadevi, Asst. Professor, Sri Venkateswara College of Pharmacy, Etchrla, Srikakulam.

4.      Smt. B. PadmaSri, Asst. Professor, Sri Venkateswara College of Pharmacy, Etchrla, Srikakulam.

 

 

Co-Curricular & Extra Curricular Activities of Students

 

2017-2018

Botanical tour 2017-18

2016-2017

Botanical tour organized at Seetampeta

 

 

Educational tour-Gitam

 

 

2015-2016

        Organized Botanical tour at Dhonubayi Forest region, end points of Eastern Ghats,Srikakulam.